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Ayrshire Breeders 



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flyrsbire Breeders* H$$ociatiol«. 



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The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Ayrshire 
Breeders' Association was held January 24th, 1900, in 
the parlor of the United States Hotel, Boston, Mass., in 
response to call of the secretary and was called to order 
by the president, ly. S. Drew, at 2 p. m. 

The roll call was responded to by the following 
members in person : 

Clark, Franklin P. 
Knnis, Alfred A. 
Fletcher, Etna J. 
Garvin, W. R. 
Hayes, Charles S. 
Joslin, H. S. 
Magie, J. O. 
Sage, Charles D. 
Wells, S. M. 
Winsor, Nicholas S. 
Yeaton, Geo. H. 
The following members responded by proxy : 

Brown, Obadiah 
Drew, L. S. 
Fletcher, Geo. A. 
French, J. D. W. 
Hayes, Charles H. 
Hazard, Isaac 
Leach, Philo 
Piper, Anson C. 
Smith, Daniel A. 
Winslow, CM. 

Arnold, Geo. W. 
Babcock, F. M. 

Barnes, N. 
Blodgett, H. W. 
Bowker, Geo. H. 
Boynton, C. H. 
Byrne, Christopher 
Cloud, James & Son 
Converse, J. F. 
Cornell, F. P. 
Drummond, James 

Ayer, H. S. 
Bacon, P. K. 
Bement, George 
Blodgett, J. W. 
Bowen, Edward S. 
Butterfield, Jerome F. 
Casterline, J. Andrew 
Coldron, J. N. 
Cookingham, H. W. 
Curtis, L. W. 
Dorn, Elmer J. 

;ij / 4 ^' 

Foote, T. L. 
Gold, T. S. 
Harrington, H. A. 
Irving, Thomas 
Krebs, J. DeWitt 
Norton, W. H. 
Peck, Cassius 
Perley, Charles 
Reeves C. Mc 
Scribner, G. S. 
Shinier, B. Luther 
Smith, Oliver 
Spalding, ly. C. 
Stowell, L. D. 
Tschud}', Fred 
Underbill, C. S. 
Watson, H. R. C. 

Foss, J. M. 
Hall, IvOtt 
Hunt, A. W. 
Jackson, AV^ard R. 
Larned, J. H. 
Peck, C. L. 
Pierce, Geo. H. 
Proctor, Fletcher D. 
Scott, John W. 
Sears, B. C. 
Smith, E. A. 
Smith, Peter D. 
Stevens, Wm. Stanford 
Surget, James 
Tubbs, Ambie S. 
Viner, Wm. 
Wells, Dudley 
Whitney, C. P. 

The following breeders of A3^rshire cattle, not mem- 
bers of the Association, were present : 

Samuel G. Copeland, West Bridgewater, Mass. 

B. F. Barnes, Haverhill, Mass. 

W. I. Bartholomew, Putnam, Conn. 

John T. Wade, Taunton, Mass. 

Aaron Gay, Stoughton, Mass. 

Davis Copeland, Campello, Mass. 

F. C. Pierce, Concord, Mass. 

Thomas A. lyillibridge, Norwood, Mass. 

Benjamin F. Davis, South Lee, N. H. 

Leonard H. Kimball, Haverhill, Mass. 

Harry B. Carter, North Barrington, N. H. 

Frank T. Moore, West Peabody, Mass. 

Chauncey Gleason, Haverhill, Mass. 

K. E. Saw3^er, Atkinson, N. H. 


It is with feelings of sadness that I have to record 
the loss of our treasurer, Mr. Henry K. Smith, who died 
this last fall. He was a man that commanded our re- 
spect for his strict integrity and care in business, and 
acquaintances found him a genial and true friend, and 
we, who knew him well, shall miss him. I have a no- 
tice here I would like to read from the Providence Jour- 
nal, and after that to move that a committee be appointed 
by the chair consisting of two, wdio shall draft proper 
resolutions in regard to Mr. Smith's death. The secre- 
tary read the following : 

HENRY E. SMITH, DIED SEPT. 23d, 1899. 


Whereas, it has pleased the Great Ruler over all in 
whom we live and have our being to call Henry E. Smith, 
our friend, fellow citizen, director and president to the 
Divine Beyond, we hereby desire to express our esteem 
and appreciation for him as a man, citizen and officer of 
the bank, and to commemorate the pleasant memories 
of our associations with him by recording this testimo- 
nial in the records of the National Exchange bank and 
publishing the same in the Providence Daily Journal 
and the Pascoag Herald. 

We also, as a Board of Directors, hereby extend to 
the family and relatives of the deceased our sympathy 
and condolence in their unexpected bereavement. 

N. S. WINSOR, ) 
A. P. MOWRY, - Committee 
M. I. MOWRY, 3 

The President — I appoint Obediah Brown and 
Mr. French to draw up those resolutions. 

The membership of the Association has been in- 
creased by the addition of the following : 

Geo. Davidson, Fairfax, P. Q. 

Edward Kemp, New York. 

E. A. Schouten, Cortland, N. Y. 

John W. Scott, Austin, Minn. 


William Jay, Katonali, N. Y. 

Franklin Doane, Middletown, N, Y. 

N. E. Sears, Elmwood, Conn. 

Howard Cook, Beloit, Ohio. 

George E. Pike, Gouverneur, N. Y. 

Ira W. Jones, Alfred, N. Y. 

Elmer J. Dorn, Johnstown, N. Y. 

Beside the death of our treasurer I have had only 
the death of Henry Thorp, Charlotte, Vt., reported. 

Volume XII is printed and about i,ooo animals al- 
ready- recorded for Volume XIII. The plan of issuing 
an attractive year book has proved a success, and has 
done much good I believe. For 1898 we issued 500 
which proved not enough, so in 1899 we issued 1,000 
copies and the}^ are all gone. I know of no wa}^ we can 
scatter information for so little money as in the issue of 
an attractive year book, but the trouble is to obtain 
good photographs and records of the dairy 3deld of 
Ayrshire cows. 

We h'ive a good many photographs sent us, and 
they look as though the cows were good ones, and if the 
artist had known how to pose her he could have taken a 
desirable picture. It needs a large photograph to get a 
good half-tone, also the cow should stand in a graceful 
position. A side view, a little to the rear and on a level 
is the best. 

I cannot understand wh}^ it should be so difficult to 
obtain reliable milk and butter records, and it seems 
strange that when the Association offers such induce- 
ments to breeders to test their cows that so few aA'ail 
themselves of this opportunit^^ for there is nothing that 
attracts buyers like a milk and butter record and it is 
not necessary that it should show wonderful cows. 

I think Mr. Drew and Mr. Yeaton would both tell 
you that the records of their herd which they have pub- 
lished have been the direct means of bringing them 

7 ■ 
many customers, and I believe the fact of their being 
sold short always is largely due to the printed records 
of their cows. 

A good many Ayrshires have been brought in from 
Canada the past year and one importation from Scot- 
land. This herd, numbering about a dozen, w^as brought 
over by Mr. John R. Valentine of Bryn Mawr, Pa. I 
saw them when in quarantine at Garfield, N. J., and 
they looked like strong constitutional cows and a good 
type of the Scotch-bred cows. They were all of them 
dry and looked to be heavy in calf. I also saw a good 
many in Canada that had been recently imported and 
most of those had the same appearance of the Scotch 
type. Some of the Canadians promised to make tests 
and records of their imported cows and send them to me, 
but as yet I have not received any. There seems to be 
a good deal of inquiry for Aj^rshires and some sales, es- 
pecially to go west. I lately shipped a carload to Santa 
Barbara, Cal., about half of them being bulls, and most 
of them consigned to parties who want them to cross on 
Jersey cows. 

Mr. Henry Wade of Toronto is trying to consoli- 
date the Canada herd-books under one head at Toronto 
and cut out everything that does not trace to importa- 
tion. His efforts are meeting with success, and his late 
volumes are recording only such cattle as have a clear 
pedigree tracing to importation. . 

The States are Canada's best market and she wishes 
to place her herd-book on a similar footing with ours to 
inspire confidence and attract buyers. 


In accordance with the vote of the iVssociation, at 
its annual meeting, held February i. 1899, your com- 
mittee issued the following circular : 

Ayrshire Breeders' Association, 
• Brandon, Vt., Februarj^ 15, 1899. 

The Aj^rshire Breeders' Association offers a special 
premium for the season of 1899 of $25 00 — $15.00 to first 
and $10.00 to second — to the two A^^rshire cows, regis- 
tered in the A3^rsliire Record, that shall score the high- 
est from one day's milking on your Fair Ground at 
the time of holding your Fair, the butter fat, not to fall 
below 3.70 per cent, butter fat as determined by the Bab- 
cock test, and the award to be decided by the following 


For each 20 da3^s since calving, - - i point. 

For each 15 days of gestation, - - - i '' 

For each pound of milk in 24 hours, - i " 

For each pound of butter fat in 24 hours , - 20 points. 
Provided, however, that your Fair Association will 
offer a like amount, making the whole premium offered 
amount to $30.00 to first and $20.00 to second, and that 
your Fair Association take the full charge oi the testing, 
and return a full official report of the test to the Secre- 
tary of the A3Tshire Breeders' Association. 

C. M. WINSLOW, Secretary. 

Which was sent on March 5th to the 
Illinois State Fair. 
Maine " " 

New" England Fair. 
New Hampshire Grange Fair. 
New Jersey State Fair. 
New York 





Penns3'lvania State Fair. 
Rhode Island '' 
St. Louis Fair, St. Louis, Mo. 
and later to the 

Valley Fair, Brattleboro, Vt. 
Cambridge Fair, Cambridge, N. Y. 

The Rhode Island, St. Louis, Valley and Cam- 
bridge fairs accepted. 

At the Rhode Island fair Mr. S. M. Wells entered 
two cows, both of which fell below qualifying standard 
for one milking, but the second milking of one was suf- 
ficiently high :o allow the average of the two milkings 
to stand at 3.75 per cent., and the Rhode Island fair 
waits instructions as to whether the wording not to fall 
below 3.70 per cent, means for either milking or for the 
average of the two. 

At the Cambridge fair cows were entered b}^ L- C. 
Spalding & Son and by E. H. & C. S. Barney, and I 
am informed that a cow of Mr. Barney's averaged over 
3.70, but that all the cows fell below 3.70 at one milk- 
ing, and that the Fair Association ruled that all cows 
were disqualified. 

The St. Louis fair were to offer the special, but as 
they have not reported results we are unable to sa}^ what 
was done. 

At the Valley Fair Rose Clovis won first and Rose 
Clenna second, both owned by CM. Winslow & vSon. 
Rose Clovis showed 4.65 per cent, of butter fat. 
Rose Clenna "4.12 

Your committee would suggest that if it is thought 
best to continue the fair ground tests that the Associa- 
tion state whether both milkings shall reach 3.70 per 
cent., or whether the average of the two shall reach 
3.70 per cent., also that no cow shall be entitled to a 
premium making less than i^-^ pounds of butter, figured 
on a basis of adding one-sixth to the result of multiply- 


ing the pounds of milk oriven b}' the per cent, of butter 
fat, this being the Experiment Station standard. 

J. D. W. FRENCH, ] Committee on 

C. M. WINSLOW, ) Dairy Tests. 

It was voted to construe the Rhode Island fair test 

of Mr. Wells' cow to be the average of the two milkings 

and award him first prize on the cow that averaged 3.75 

per cent, butter fat. 



For some years your committee on dairy tests has 
be;:n tr5dng in every wa3^ to obtain reliable statistics of 
the dair}^ 3neld of Aryshire cows, but with little com- 
parative success. They have urged the breeders to test 
their cows. The3^ have devised ways in which it would 
be no expense to the owners of cows, and last j^ear the 
Association offered $100 in prizes in addition to pa3'ing 
all the expense of the test, and still Ave are unable to re- 
port any but the same old herds. 

Your committee prepared the following circular and 
sent to ever}^ owner of five or more AA^rshire cows, as we 
believe, in the United States, and four herds responded 
as follows : 

Geo. H. Yeaton, Dover, N. H. 

C. H. Ha5-es & Sons, Portsmouth, N. H. 

E. S. Drew, South Burlington, Vt. 

C. M. Winslow & Son, Brandon, Vt. 



For several years the officers of the Ayrshire Breed- 
ers' Association have been tr3dng to obtain reliable rec- 
ords of the dairy ability of the A3''rshire cow. While 
the response has not been general it has been sufficient 
to demonstrate the fact that the A3"rshire cow is natu- 


rally a dairy cow of great ability, both in the production 
of butter and milk, and that it onl}^ needs a little atten- 
tion on the part of her owners to ascertain by test which 
are the profitable cows, and having found them, to breed 
judicioush^ and the Ayrshire cow will take rank with 
the best dairy breeds of the world, if not at the head 
of all. 

The Association, for the purpose of making a still 
further attempt to obtain statistics, voted at its last an- 
nual meeting to authorize the "Dairy Committee" to 
conduct a Home Dairy test for seven consecutive daj^s 
to obtain a week's record of quantit}^ of milk, per cent, 
butter fat, per cent, total solids and pounds of market- 
able butter with the cost of butter per pound, and voted 
to offer three prizes for the largest amount of butter ob- 
tained in seven consecutive days from a herd of five 
cows, $50 to the first, $30 to the second and $20 to the 


Herds of cows will be tested for individual records = 
Any breeder of Ayrshires may enter a herd of cows, 
w^hich shall at the time of notice of entry stand on the 
books of the Association as owned b5^him. He shall in 
giving notice of entr}^, furnish the secretary with a full 
list of the cows he proposes to have tested, giving name 
and herd-book number and stating the time w^hen he 
would prefer the test to be made. He may name as 
many of his cows for the test as he chooses and may 
have as many of those named tested as he chooses, but 
no notice of entry will be accepted after December i, 
1899. The time of having the test made is optional 
with the owner, but notice must be given the secretary 
at least one month previous, that arrangements ma}^ be 
made for the test. The owner need not name the indi- 
vidual cows he enters for the herd prize, until after the 
test of the herd has been made. He ma}' also have as 


man}' tests, of cows named in the notice, made during 
the year as he desires, but shall give notice to the sec- 
retar}^ of each test he proposes to have made and shall 
himself employ and pa}^ the agent for all tests after the 
first test made b}- the Association, as the Association 
will pa3^ for only one visit of the agent, and he shall cm- 
ploy the same agent the Association employed for the 
first test. In making his selection of the five cows for 
the herd, he ma^^ select an}' cow that was in the test 
made by the Association or by himself under the dire'c- 
tion of the Association, as above stated. He shall in 
making the final entry, fill out a blank furnished by the 
secretary, giving name and number of each cow, her age 
and weight, the number of calves she has produced, the 
date of birth of last calf, and date of last service by bull 
since last calf was dropped. A statement, as accurate 
as possible, is requested of tlie method of feeding and 
care for at least two weeks previous to test, and during 
the seven days of the test a statement of the exact 
amount of food given each cow with its local market 
cost. If the cows are in pasture, give the local price 
per week for such pasturing and an exact account of 
an}^ other food given. Also state the local price paid 
for butter. The object is to obtain the cost of the but- 
ter, but in awarding the prize it is for the large^^t quan- 
tity regardless of cost. 

The tests will be made as far as possible by agents 
from the Experiment Station, or some other disinterest- 
ed and competent persons, who will see the cows milked 
clean twelve hours previous to the beginning of the test, 
and will weigh and test the milk of each cow at each 
milking during the test, or he may tCvSt from a compos- 
ite sample, being left optional and governed by the nec- 
essities of the case, but if he shall make a composite 
sample he shall place a seal on each jar of milk each 
time after adding milk to the composite sample in the 

jar and take such other care of samples as shall ensure 
freedom from suspicion of its having been tampered 
with. The test shall be made bj^the "Babcbck Tester" 
and the "Quevenne I^actometer, " and the quantit}* of 
marketable butter shall be calculated by the addition of 
one-sixth to the butter fat. 

It will be expected that persons entering herds for 
the Home Dairy Test will entertain the agent while 
making the test, free of charge, and give him every fa- 
cility for carrying on test. 

J. D. W. FRENCH, North Andover, Mass., 
C. M. WINSLOW, Sec'y, Brandon, Vt., 

Committee on Dair}^ Tests. 


I wish to enter the following herd of five cows, for the prize of- 
fered by the Ayrshire Breeders' Association for the "Home Dair^ 
Test" for 1899 : 

Date of birth 

Date of last 

No. of 


bull service 






last calf 

since calving 

Lad3^ Fox, 





Mar. 30, '99 

Annie Bert 

, 9670 




April 23, '99 






Mav 2, '99 






Jan."' 3, '99 

Feb. 16, '99 

lona S, 





( Sig-nci 

Jan. 28, '99 
d) GEO. H. 

May 7, '99 




Durham, N. H., Dec. 2, 1899. 
Results of the test of the Ayrshire herd owned by George H. 
Yeaton, Rollinsford, N. H., conducted by Mr. Arthur Given and 
Mr. C. H. Waterhouse, May 15 to 21 inclusive: 


Per cent. 

Per cent. 















Annie Bert, 






Lady Fox, 






lona S., 












1626.2 12. 4. 64.45 75.09 

FRED W. MORSE, Vice-Director. 

Five cows, 1626.2 milk, 12 per cent, total solids* 4 per cent, 
fat, 75.09 butter. 


30 lbs. hay per day at $12 per ton, $1.26 
8 lbs. mixed feed per day at $18 per ton. 50.4 

8 lbs. gluten feed per day at $18 per ton, 50.4 

4 lbs. cotton seed meal per day at $25 per ton, 35. 


Seven days' feed for five cows, ' $13.09.0 

Cost per pound butter, 17.42 cents. 


30 lbs. hay per day at $12 per ton. $1.26 

5 lbs. mixed feed per day at $18 per ton, .45 

5 lbs. oluten feed per day at S18 per ton, .45 

21/2 lbs. cotton seed per day at $25 per ton, .22 




I wish to enter the following herd of five cows, for the prize of- 
fered by the Ayrshire Breeders' Association for the "Home Dairy 
Test" for 1899 : 




Date of birth 
No. of of 
W'glit calves last call 

Date of last 

bull service 

since calving 

Lady Marcia, 
Cherr\^ Blossom, 
Ladv Briarwood 







1200 6 Mar. 19, '99 
1000 7 Mar. 28, '99 
1000 6 April 20, '99 
1100 4 Mar. 18, '99 
1200 6 Feb. 22, '99 

May 5, '99 

(Signed) C. H. HAYES & SONS. 




Durham, N. H., Jan. 10, 1900. 

Results of the test of the Ayrshire herd belonging to C. H. 

Hayes & Sons, Portsmouth, N. H., May 2 to 8. 1899: 

Lbs. Per cent. Per cent. Lbs. 

Name milk solids fat butter 

Ladv Marcia, 381X 12.0 3.3 14.67 

Hersa, 295V2 11.7 3.7 12.78 

Cromona, 272% 12.2 4. 12.74 


Cherry Blossom, 



Per cent. 





Per cent, 







The tests were conducted and anal_vses made by Messrs. C. H. 
Waterhouse and Arthur Given. 

FRED W. MORSE, Vice-Director. 


Five cows, 15.16% pounds of milk, 11.79 percent, total solids, 
3.6 per cent, fat, 63.47 pounds butter. 


15 lbs. of hay at $8 per ton, 
15 lbs. ensilage at $2.50 per ton, 
15 lbs. beets at $4 a ton, 
15 lbs. brewer's grains at .05 per bushel, 
8 lbs. grain mixed at $20 per ton. 

Cost of feed for five cows for seven daj-s, 

Cost per cow, 20% cents. 

Cost of one pound butter, 11.09 cents. 






L. S. DREW. 

I wish to enter the following herd of five cows for the prize of- 
fered bv the Avrshire Breeders' Association for the "Home Dairv 
Test" for 1899 : 

Date of birth 


last calf 

Name No. Age 

Nett 3d, 12647 6 

Miss Edna, 13218 4 

Sadie Tascott, 11483 8 

Miss Ollie, 12039 6 

Ladv Sears, 12641 6 

Estimated No. of 
w^eis-lit calves 

1000 4 Mar. 27, '99 

1000 2 April 24, '99 

1000 6 April 30, '99 

1000 4 Oct. 18, '98 

1000 4 April 12, '99 

(Signed) L. S. DREW. 


May 9-15, 1899. 


Nett 3d, 
Miss Edna, 
Sadie Tascott, 
Miss Ollie, 
Ladv Sears, 

Lbs. of 



Per cent, 
total solids 


Per cent, 


Lbs. of 






Lbs. butter 


plus 1-6 


1357.0 13. 4. 53.67 62.60 

Director Vermont Experiment Station. 



Five cows, 1357 pounds milk, 13 per cent, total solids, 4 per 
cent, fat, 62.60 pounds butter. 


36 lbs. hay per day at $8 per ton, 1 0008 

IV^ lbs. gluten meal per da3^ at $22 per ton, .1155 

22 ozs. bran per day at $18 per ton, .09 

Food for one cow one week, 

Food for five cbws one week. 
Cost of butter per pound, .0964. 




I wish to enter the following herd of five cows for the prize of- 
fered bv the Avrshire Breeders' Association for the "Home Dairv 
Test" for 1899: 

Date of birth 
Est, No. of of 

Age weight c'lves last calf 
6 1050 4 Aug. 22, '99 

Rose Sultana, 
Rose Allie, 
Rose Cleon, 
Rose Deruth, 




• 2, 



Date of last 

bull service 

since cah'ing 

Sept. 16, '99 

Nov. 15, '99 

Jan. 1, '00 

Oct. 10. '99 

Dec. 22, 



5 Oct. 

6 Oct. 

7 Sept 



of C. M. Winslow & Son, conducted under the direction of the Ver- 
mont Experiment Station. 

J. L. HILLS, Director. 

Lbs. but- 
ter fat 

pJtis 1-6 
12 86 

Rose Sultana, 
Rose Allie, 
Rose Cleon, 
Rose Deruth, 

Lbs. of 

Per cent, 
total solids 
13 17 
12 51 

Per cent, 
4 19 

Lbs. butter 





1209.9 12.69 3.92 47.36 

Five cows, 1210 pounds milk, 12.69 per cent, total 
3.92 per cent, fat, 55.26 pounds butter. 


40 lbs. hay per day at $8 per ton, 
4 lbs. bran per day at $16 per ton, 
2 lbs. corn meal per da\^ at $18 per ton, 





soli U. 

Cost of feed for five cow^s seven days. 
Cost of butter, 13Xc. per pound. 





The Secretary — At the meeting of the Executive 
Committee, held this morning, it was voted to recom- 
mend the continuation of both the Fair Ground and 
Home Dairy tests, with the same appropriation as last 
3^ear, also to accept the recommendations of the commit- 
tee on tests for the changes voted in the rules of the test. 
It seemed to the Executive Committee that while the re- 
sponse from the breeders and owners of Ayrshires was 
surprisingly few that it all the more behooved the Asso- 
ciation to do all they could to encourage and urge upon 
the breeders of Ayrshires the advantage of these official 
tests, in that it now and then gave valuable statistics 
for the breed, and encouraged the breeder to improve 
his herd by knowing which were the best cows in his 
own herd, and where to go for stock with which to build 
up and improve in dairy lines. While the announce- 
ment that a cow has won the blue ribbon in the ring 
may be gratifying, it really means but little, for she ma}^ 
have been the best type of an Ayrshire cow in the ring, 
and she may not, but to win the prize in a dairy test 
means just what it purports to be, for the tests are con- 
ducted by competent and disinterested parties and the 
verdict means something. 

Mr. Hayes — I move the acceptance of the report 
and the dairy tests be continued with the same appro- 

The motion was seconded and unanimoush^ adopted. 

The President — A motion is made to appoint 
the same committee as last year. Those in favor make 
it manifest by saying a^^'e. 

Unanimous vote.) 

The President — Listen to a report of the com- 
mittee appointed to draft resolutions in regard to Mr. 
Smith's death which will be read by the secretary : 

Whereas, it has pleased our Heavenl}^ Father in 
His wise Providence to remove from our midst our late 


treasurer, Henr}^ E. Smith, we hereby desire to express 
our esteem of his sterling qualities, as a friend and 
brother member, and also our keen sense of apprecia- 
tion of his long and faithful service of thirteen ^^ears as 
Treasurer of the Ayrshire Breeders' Association. 

We desire that a copy of these resolutions be placed 
on record and that they be sent to his family to whom 
we extend our sincere sympathy in their great bereave- 

Mr. MagiE — Mr. President : I think we, as an 
Association, do not fully realize what we have lost in 
the death of Mr. Smith. Having been one of the com- 
mittee to examine his accounts for some years, it has 
given me great pleasure to see in what a plain, business- 
like manner he kept the books, so easily examined, and 
I sincerely concur in this resolution. 

The President — You hear the resolutions. Those 
in favor please rise. 

(Unanimous rising vote.) 


The Secretary — I have the names of candidates 
for membership which 1 wnll read : Walter F. Scott, 
Brandon, Vt. ; George L- Rice, Rutland, Vt. These I 
recommend and I think Mr. Drew will recommend them 

The President — I will. 

The Secretary — We have the names of Benja- 
min F. Davis, South Lee, N. H. ; Chauncey Gleason, 
Haverhill, Mass. ; B. F. Barnes, Haverhill, Mass. ; H. 
F. Cater & Son, North Barrington, N. H. ; Eugene A. 
Holt, Bennington, N. H. ; Frank T. Moore, West Pea- 
body, Mass. ; Frederick Kimball, East Haverhill, Mass.; 
these are recommended by Mr. Garvin and Mr. Yeaton. 

The Vermont Experiment Station, by CassiusPeck, 
Burlington, Vt., farm superintendent, recommended by 
Mr. Drew and myself; Alfred J. Ta3dor, 257 Broadway, 


New York, recommended by Mr. Hayes ; John A. Tay- 
lor, Owego, N. Y., recommended by Mr. E. A. Schau- 
ten of Cortland, N. Y. 

A motion was made that they all be elected. 

The President — You hear the motion, that they 
all be elected members upon payment of the member- 
ship fee. 

(Unanimously adopted.) 

The President — We will now call for the treas- 
urer's report. 

The Secretary — Mr. President : At my request 
Mr. Winsor prepared a report of the treasurer's (Mr. 
Smith's) account, starting with the account as he took 
it at the last meeting and adding to that the amount 
that is in my hands at the present time not paid over 
which I think he will read. 

The acting treasurer, Mr. Winsor, then proceeded 
to read the report as stated above, it having been aud- 
ited by Messrs. Brown and Magie. 




Feb. 1. Cash on hand $ 790.19 

Sale of herd-book-- 10.25 

Deposit in Smithfield Savings bank 2,631.32 

Nov. 1. Interest on deposit 112.28 




Expense of annual meeting $19.20 

Express and postage 1.39 

Balance on hand, viz: Deposit in Smithfield 

Savings bank $2,631.32 

Mavl5. Deposited in bank 300.00 

Nov. 1. Deposited in bank 450.00 

Interest on deposit 112.28 

Cash ." 29.85 


Auditor's report of balance in hands of secretary 523.82 

Total cash assests $4,067.86 


The President — Gentlemen, what will you do 
with this report? 

Mr. Hayes — I move it be accepted and adopted. 

The President — Gentlemen, will 3'ou accept and 
adopt it? 

(Unanimous vote for its adoption.) 

The Secretary — I received the following from 
F. A. Converse, secretar}^ of the New York state Breed- 
er's Association. Copy of resolutions passed b}'^ New 
York State Breeders' Association, D.^cember 7, 1899: 

Whereas, such a marked difference in t^^pe of the 
Ayrshire cattle exists between several breeders that it 
practically forbids an attempt to judge correctl}^ b}" the 
comparative system, and that this constitutes a great 
source of error and dissatisfaction, therefore be it 

Resolved, that the Ayrshire Breeders' Association 
of United States and Canada be requested to make their 
scale of points more exact and clear, and that they no- 
tify the secretary of this Association of their action. 

The Secretary — The above request to revise our 
scale of points was laid before the Executive Com- 
mittee, and they voted to recommend to the Association 
that it be referred to the Executive Committee to ap- 
point someone to revise. It needs a vote b}- the Asso- 
ciation if they wish to have the scale of points revised, 
and either appoint a committee themselves or refer it to 
the Executive Committee. The lavSt scale of points was 
made February 21, 1889, and it seems, for the good of 
the Association, that once in ten 3^ears or so, we should 
look over the scale of points and see if there is need of 
any change. 

Mr. Hayes — I move it be left in the hands of the 
Executive Committee. 

(The motion was seconded and adopted b}^ unani- 
mous vote.) 

The Executive Committee referred it to J. D. W. 
French and CM. Winslow. 


The Secretary — Mr. President : The Canada 
people are ver}^ anxious to get into our herd-book be- 
cause our government requires an entry in our herd- 
book before the}^ will admit them free of duty. The 
Canada people have for several years past been working 
over their pedigrees trying to look up the missing links 
and trace each animal through definite animals to im- 
portation in order that they may be eligible to registry 
in our book for the purpose of sales across the line. At 
present our government does not look upon a registry 
in the Canada Ayrshire books as a sufficient guarantee 
of purity of blood, they not having been very particular 
about their records and admitting to their appendix the 
registry of animals of doubtful purit)^ but now that 
ever}^ Ayrshire that is sold to come over the line free of 
duty must be registered in our book they have revised 
their book and are throwing out all that we will not ac- 
cept, in the hope that our government wnll accept a reg- 
istry in this book as authorit}^ and save them the trou- 
ble and expense of registering in our book. 

There have been quite a number of Ayrshires im- 
ported from Canada within the past two years which 
were obliged to pay duty because the}^ were not eligible 
to registr}^ in our book. Then, too, the Canadians are 
anxious to have our government accept their book as au- 
thority' because there are a good man^?- of their old fam- 
ilies of A^^rshires which until recently have had a flaw 
in their pedigree and were not eligible to our book, but 
now they claim to have them straightened out and elig- 
ible. But there are so many unrecorded animals between 
the present animals and the imported ones that the ex- 
pense of a record in our book prevents a sale when the 
record must be made before importation. But if their 
book was received as authorit}^ the purchaser would not 
find out his mistake until he had brought his animal 
over the line and wanted it entered in our book. Thev 


wrote me the other day and asked me to bring up before 
our Executive Committee the matter of two cows which 
they were ver^' anxious to have recorded in our herd- 
book, because the}' would not accept in their herd- book 
anything that was not eligible to ours. They have got 
these two cows down so the}^ are quite sure that each 
cow is out of one of two certain cows and sired by one of 
two certain bulls, but just which the}^ do not know^ ; but 
it is their ver}^ strong opinion that it is b}^ one of two 
cows by one of two bulls, and the^^ request us, in order 
to admit several hundred of their cattle into good stand- 
ing, to make a departure in our herd-book and substi- 
tute two dams and two sires for one calf. When the 
matter was brought up before the Executive Committee 
this m^orning. it was decided to recommend the Associa- 
tion to instruct the Secretary that when the}^ can be sat- 
isfied themselves that the animal is from one dam and 
one sire, by name and number, and will sj record it in 
their herd-book, we wall accept them, otherwise not. 
But it remains for the Association to settle that matter. 

The President — Gentlemen, what do 3^0 u say? 

Mr. Hayes — I move it be left as the Executive 
Committee recommended. 

(Motion adopted b}' a unanimous vote.) 

The Secretary — Mr. President : The Canadians 
have felt it was a great hardship to have to pay so much 
to get into our books. For a great man}^ years it was 
of no great consequence to them whether they got in or 
not, but at the present time they are making sales from 
Canada over here, sending cattle to buyers, and they 
have to be recorded in our herd-book before the}^ can 
get in without duty. A great man}^ of their cattle of 
late 3'ears, b}^ the strenuous efforts of a good manj^ men, 
have been identified so that an animal which formerly 
traced back to a herd, or one or two cows has now been 
traced to one dam. But it happens ver}' often, in order 

to register an animal they have to record 50, 75 or 100 
cows, and I received a letter from Mr. Galium the other 
day saying it was going to cost $25 to register one calf, 
and it was not worth any more than that. 

At the request of the secretary, Henry Wade, who 
is tr3dng to put their book on a solid basis, I met him 
and we agreed on the following terms, provided the As- 
sociation acquiesced : We require that a member of our 
Association shall pay one dollar for the entrj^ of an ani- 
mal and for ancestors, (the record of w^hich is of no val- 
ue to him except to connect animals already recorded 
as importation) shall pa}' twent3'-five cents apiece. I 
arranged with Mr. Wade, if our Association would en- 
dorse it, that I would recommend that the}' be allowed, 
if they wanted to sell an 3^ cattle over here, to enter their 
animal at one dollar and one dollar each for all animals 
back of it necessar}' to connect the pedigree in our book 
or to importation up to ten animals, and all back of ten 
animals at twent3'-five cents apiece. He was satisfied 
and said that if we would do that the3^ could have their 
cattle recorded. I thought that was a fair offer and we 
can afford to accept them under those conditions. It 
would make it rather expensive for them an3^wa3'. If 
we hadn't done that, the3' would send the animal over 
here to the bu3'er and he would get it recorded at twent3'- 
five cents, so that I thought on the whole, we would be 
mone3" in and I thought it wise to do it : but it needs 
the endorsement of the Association. 

The President — What does the Association sa3' ? 

Mr. Hayes — As I understand it, the Executive 
Committee have decided to let them in at one dollar 
apiece up to ten, and then twent3-five cents after the 
ten. Is that right ? 

The President — That's it. 

Mr. Hayes — I move it be left as the Executive 
Committee has decided. 

(iVdopted b}^ unanimous vote.) 


The President — The next business, gentlemen, 
is the election of officers. 

The Secretary — First is the election of president, 
who is elected by ballot. Will 3^ou nominate for presi- 
dent ? 

Mr Hayes — I move the secretar}-^ be authorized to 
cast a ballot for the election of Mr. Drew as president. 

(A ballot was cast by the secretary and Mr. Drew^ 
was unanimously elected.) 

Thr Secretary — Mr. "Drew is elected. 

The President — Well, gentlemen, if time would 
allow, I would make 3'ou a speech, as I am so well 
adapted to speech-making. Thank 3^ou for the election. 
If you will bear with me another 3^ear, I will be pleased 
to serve 3'ou. 

The Secretary — The vice-presidents are next 
and the president has asked me to read the list. 
(List read by secretar}'.) 

I have a letter from Mr. Sears, sa3dng he has gone 
out of A3^rshires and thought it would be of no especial 
benefit to the Association having him remain an officer, 
and would suggest someone else be put in his place. I 
would name Dr. Turnbull of Monaca, Penn., to take 
Mr. Sears' place. We who were at the last meeting re- 
member him as a stirring man, who is doing a good 
deal in the matter of pushing A3^rshire interests. I 
would nominate the same list of vice-presidents with Dr. 
Turnbull in place of Mr. Sears. 

The President — I heartily concur with the secre- 
tar};- as to Dr. Turnbull being in a location that will do 
us some good and in a manner that will be useful. 

(It was unanimously' voted that the secretar}- should 
cast a ballot for the following list for vice-presidents, 
Obadiah Brown, Providence, R. I., H. R. C. Watson, 
New York, John Stewart, Blburn, 111., Thos. Turnbull, 
Jr., Monaca, who were elected.) 


The President — Now, gentlemen, who will you 
have for secretar}' ? 

(It was unanimously voted that the president should 
cast one ballot for Secretar}^ Winslow, vvho was 

Mr. Brown — We have a ^-oung man who is pres- 
ent with us from Rhode Island whom I think eminently 
fitted to occupy the position of treasurer. As he is a 
stranger to most of you gentlemen I wall sa}' this for him : 
He is cashier of the bank of which Mr. Smith was presi- 
dent. Our tunds are all in that bank. So far as I 
know him, and I have known him from a small bo}", he 
is a very eminenth^ qualified young man to fill the posi- 
tion. He is an Ayrshire breeder, takes an interest in 
Ayrshires. I do noi want to say too much in his praise 
for he is present, but from the position he holds and the 
company he has kept while with Mr. Smith, I think it is 
fit for you to consider him a worth}^ candidate for the 
position as treasurer. I take great pleasure in naming 
Nicholas S. Winsor to fill the place of our late treasurer, 
Mr. Henry E. Smith. 

(It was voted that Mr. Brown should cast a ballot 
for Nicholas S. Winsor as treasurer, and he was unani- 
mously elected.) 

The Secretary — The members of the Executive* 
Committee, whose term expires this 3^ear, are Mr. J. D. 
W. French and Mr. John W. Scott. I would like 
to name those two gentlemen for the term of three 
5'ears. Mr. Scott is a man wdio is doing a great 
deal in his state to wake them up on A3a'shires, by 
speeches at dair}^ meetings, exhibits at fairs and 
articles in his State papers. He is cashier of 
the First National bank of Austin, Minnesota, and 
has a large farm stocked with Ayrshires. I would like 
to repeat one statement that he wrote me the other da}^ 
and that is, he is not selling au}^ animals that are not 


going to be a credit to the A3'rshire Breeders. Any ani- 
mal he finds not worth}^ of perpetuating, he disposes of, 
which I think is a good recommendation tor any breed- 
er. He sells nothing except what is going to benefit 
the breed. 

Mr. WelIvS — I thoroughh' recommend Mr. Scott. 
I have had a great deal of correspondence with him. He 
is a good Scotchman, understands himself thoroughly 
and knows how to express his views. 

The Secretary — I move that Mr. Wells be au- 
thorized to cast a ballot for Mr. Scott and Mr. French. 

(The ballot was cast and Mr. French and Mr. Scott 
were elected.) 

The President — You are in want now of an edit- 
ing committee. Mr. Winslow and Mr. J. D. W. French 
was our last committee. 

(It was unanimously voted that the}' should be 
elected for the coming 3'ear. ) 

The Secretary — Mr. President, at the last meet- 
ing in New York we had present a painting of the 
cow, Duchess of Smithfield, which Mr. Alvord, chair- 
man of the Dair}^ Department at Washington, had paint- 
ed, and from that painting had a picture taken — not ex- 
actl}^ lithographed— I do not know what it is called, for 
publication, and it appeared in a j^earlj^ report of the 
Department of Agriculture. He also, I notice, in the 
department publications, has a skeleton sketch of this 
same cow to show the different points of a dairy cow. 
At his request last year, a committee was appointed to 
examine the picture and write to Major Alvord any crit- 
icisms in regard to it as this was an experiment of the 
government. We appointed Mr. French on that com- 
mittee — I think Mr. French and Henr}^ E. Smith were 
appointed, and the}' evidently reported, because here is 
a letter in regard to it. 




Washington, D. C, Feb. 14, 1899. 
J. D. W. French, Esq., Boston, Mass. 
My Dear Sir : Please accept my thanks for 3'our 
favor of the i ith inst., giving us your excellent criticism 
of the oil portrait of the cow. Duchess of Smithfield, 
owned b}' this department. 

We are plc-ised that 3"ou are so far able to com- 
mend our efforts to make a good picture of a typical 
milch cow, selected from the A3^rshire breed. 

Unable to give the artist a look at the original, or 
even a good description of her color and markings, I am 
gratified to find we succeeded so well. 
Verv truly yours, 


Chief of Dair}" Division. 

Mr. French — Mr. Alvord has published that por- 
trait as a t3^pical dairy cow. It is a very good picture. 
Possibly somebody might criticise the coloring some- 
what as being not quite the color of the original animal, 
but take it altogether, it is a ver}^ good picture of a 
dairy cow, and I think it is a good deal to the credit of 
the breed that the Dairy Bureau m Washington should 
have taken an Ayrshire cow, of course, it is a well- 
known one, the Duchess of Smithfield, as the standard 
type of a dairy cow, to go throughout the land as such 
and throughout the world. I presume members can 
get that report by applying to the Dairy Bureau at 
Washington, of which Mr. Alvord is the chief. 

The President — I want to say further, gentle- 
men, about the Ayrshires : The president of the Ver- 
mont State Agricultural societ}', Mr. George Aiken, 
wrote a paper the other day. He is a Jerse}^ breeder 
and represents the Billings farm. He said in his paper 
that what they want of a Jersey is to make it as near the 
type of an Ayrshire as possible and then they would 
have a dair> ow. 


The Secretary — Mr. President : It is said that 
a child draws its character from its mother's milk and 
this man you speak of is a Scotchman, born on a Scotch 
farm, raising x\yrshire cattle. He came over to this 
country and had a herd of A3'rshire cattle, but was paid 
a very large price to abandon Ayrshire cattle to go into 
the Jerseys. His character remains the same — Ayrshire. 

Mr. French — I want to say that this is the largest 
A3'-rshire meeting that we have had, I think, for a good 
many years — over thirty men present, some whom we 
have never seen before, I think, at any of our meetings. 
They have come here, many of them, from a distance, 
a number of them from different parts of New England, 
and I think it would do them and us good if they would 
tell us some of their experience in breeding Ayrshire 
cattle. I think it would be a pity to have the meeting 
dissolved without hearing from them. 

I hope ever}^ man will go home with at least one 
good intention, if nothing more — that he will keep a 
milk record of his herd, testing it v;ith the Babcock test 
and ascertaining the butter fat. This will help the 
breeder more than an3^thing else in finding out which 
are the best animals, w^hich the animals he ought to 
keep, and will have more influence on the breeding of 
his herd than anything else. First, the keeping of the 
milk records, these records which the secretar}^ has 
here, weighing the milk of ever}^ cow twice a da}' if 
possible, and filing those, making up the record for the 
3^ear, the number of days in milk, and ascertaining the 
butter fat of each cow, and then if he wants to breed 
his herd up so that the i\3^rshires will have qualit}^ as 
well as quantit3^ raise the calves from cows that pro- 
duce the greatest amount of butter fat, then not onl}^ 
will the Ayrshire breed stand on a level with an}" other 
breed, but it will stand at the head. The onh' thing 


that has been lacking has been butter fat. The onl}^ 
way you can ascertain the butter fat, except by the 
churn, which it is not always possible to do, is b}^ the 
Babcock test. Test your cows two or three times a year 
at different times and periods and then go on thatbasis. 
It has" been the common custom of many of us in the 
past to raise every good looking calf that came along 
or came from a good looking cow. If we are to go to 
the head, which it looks as though we might do, a little 
care and trouble is required on the part of the breeders. 
The Ayrshire breed has been going on graduall}' with- 
out any boom, increasing in favor, and is steadily rising 
in the influence and the appreciation of it b}^ Ayrshire 
breeders, and b}^ men outside as well. There are 
only a few things wanting and those are the things I 
have mentioned, but there is nothing any one man can 
do that will help himself more or the breed more than 
those two things — keep the milk record and test your 
herds with the Babcock test, and then breed accordingl}^ 
from such cows as ma}^ present themselves after that 
test as being the best to raise your calves from. 

I hope, Mr. President, we shall hear from the mem- 
bers present in relation to their experiences. I would 
like to know how many men present keep a milk record, 
then I would like to know how many men present have 
ever used the Babcock test in their herds. I think it 
would be a useful piece of information. I hope at the 
next meeting, upon asking these questions, ever^^ man 
wall raise his hand. 

The President — Gentlemen, do you hear the re- 
quest of Mr. French. You who keep a milk record, 
please raise your right hand. About six or seven. 

Mr. P'rench — How mau}^ tested their herd wdth 
the Babcock test. 

(In reply to this inquiry, about eight answered in 
the affirmative.) 

The President — Mr. Brown, 3'ou have heard Mr. 
French's plea to the breeders, and as 3^ou are about as 
old a one as we have, w^e w^ould like to hear from you 
about 3^our experience with Ayrshires, w^hat \^ou have 
to say that is good of their qualities — sa^^ an^^thing as 
long as it is Ayrshire. 

Mr. Brown — I do not know^ as I am prepared to 
make any speech. I have bred A^^rshires for the past 
thirt}^ years. As far as I am concerned I am ver}^ well 
satisfied wdth w^hat I have raised. I have nothing else in 
m\^ herd. The}^ are good breeders, they fill themselves 
always with an3^thing you ma3^ give them. The onl3^ 
objection I have ever had to the Ayrshires is on account 
of their teats — the3^ are inclined to have too small teats, 
and I so explained to Mr. John Stewart of Scotland, 
when he was at m3^ place. "That is the very reason we 
are not importing A3'rshires toda3^" I told him. "We 
like them w^ell, but we do not like their short teats. " He 
expressed himself as being surprised that w^e had bet- 
ter A3^rshires in America than the3^ had in Scotland. I 
thought that w^as quite a puff. I told him w^e had tried 
to breed wdth care from the best cattle, that we bred for 
milking purposes, and in order to get the milk easih^ we 
bred the long teats as much as we could. He said he 
should go home feeling different from what he had, and 
thought w^e were on the right track. As I have alread3^ 
said, I have bred for the past thirty years a good t3'pe 
of the dair3' cow% a cow that w^ll give good milk. When 
3^ou come to qualit3^ and quantit3^ I refer to Mr. Drew 
w^ho lives wa3" up on the mountain, and w^hat he tells 
you, he is up so high on the hill, can be heard ever3'-- 
where . 

The President — To show you that I feel a little 
cheap m3'Self, we wall call upon Mr. Yeaton, who took 
the prize away from me in butter making. 

Mr. Ybaton — Mr. President, I do not think I can 
sa}^ an3'thing to this Association. I think, perhaps, the 
secretary can talk very much better than I can. Mr. 
Drew blamed me a little today for feeding so heavily. I 
find that the Ayrshire cattle do not do as well unless 
they are well fed. Now, in this test that we had in May 
before the cattle were turned out to grass, I did give the 
cows a little extra feed, but I did not get any of them off 
their feed. They all ate what I gave them and looked 
for more, and the}^ gave me quite good returns. Mr. 
French asks what our cows have done. I will speak of 
just one which I mention in my circular, I think. She 
gave for the seven days 428 pounds of milk, an average 
of 61.2 per day, and her milk tested 3.8, I think- it was. 
She gave 18.98 pounds of butter, which is 2.35 pounds 
a da}^ for the week. She gave her weight in milk in 18 
days for the month of May — that is, her estimated 
weight. I judge she w^ould weigh 1,000 pounds and 
her milk w^eighed 10 18 pounds. Now, I do not believe 
that cow would have given that if she had not been well 
fed. It occurs to me that it is profitable, if you want 
good returns from a cow, to feed well. I have practised 
that for at least the number of years that I have been 
breeding Ayrshires. I think our president himself 
feeds his cow^s pretty w^ell. A cow won't give 9,000 
pounds of milk unless you give it some fuel to live on. 
I do not think I will attempt to take up any more of 
your time b}^ trying to interest you further, as I do not 
think I can do it. I will, however, extend to j'^ou an in- 
vitation to come to the town of RoUinsford — there are 
two herds there, one beside my own, that of the veteran 
breeder, Mr. Garvin. He had a little calf there in his 
barn about as big as a poodle dog. I asked him if he 
was going to raise it, and he said, "No, I will give it to 
you if you want it." This little cow, Annie Bert, has 
given me over 58,000 pounds of milk in seven 3^ears. 
She is the smallest cow in the barn and the homliest. I 
hope you will call on such veterans as Mr. Garvin, 


Mr. Garvin was thereupon asked to make a few re- 
marks, in response to which he stated his inabilit}' to 
make much of a statement, but that he had been a 
breeder of Ayrshire cattle for fifteen 3'ears or more. 

Mr. Wells was then called upon. 

"Gentlemen : You ought not to call on me ever\' 
time — you called on me last time. I have been breed- 
ing x\yrshire cattle for fort}^ 3^ears and I have not tired 
of them yet. I have kept a record most of the time. I 
have been supplying milk to the Medical Society, and 
thcA^ require that the milk shall be weighed and tested 
under the Babcock test every month. It is not required 
that I shall feed any particular food, but the cow must 
be kept in good, health}^ condition at all times. I have 
had cows give as high as 10,000 or 12,000 pounds in a 
3^ear, but I think it is a pretty good cow if she gives 
6,000, a very good cow. I was talking to Mr. Fuller at 
one time about thai: great Jersey cow in Canada who 
made a great Jersey record, Mary Ann of St. Lambert. 
She had three men to take care of her and she was fed 
fifteen or twenty times a da^^ the feed being changed 
constantly. She was a large cow. I find that the larger 
frame a cow has the more milk she will give ; a small 
cow will not give as much milk per 3'ear as a larger 

The President — Here is a gentleman who has 
often met with us — Mr. Magie of New Jersey, an old 

Mr. Magie — Gentlemen, I am very glad to see so 
many Ayrshire breeders here today. I think the Ayr- 
shire breed is looking up ; it is in our section of the 
countr}'. We are raising milk there for the market, 
nearby markets largely . Some portions of New Jersey 
ship to New York, but our milk and that of many dairy- 
men round us go to the cities of Newark, Elizabeth 
and Portsmouth, the larger cities. At New Brunswick, 

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Wt ^VHiitf * 


^k), ■ .■ ^ ' 





where the State Farm is, the}^ are now getting some 
A^-rshires. Prof. B., who is at the head of it, is ver\' 
much interested in A3^rshires, and has recently bought 
some. Some 3"ears ago the}' started a herd of five dif- 
ferent breeds for the sake of testing the milk. The}' 
were only running a short time before their barn was 
accidentall}' burned and they were destroyed, none of 
the cattle being saved. But after building they bought 
a few more. There was, however, a change in the ad- 
ministration of affairs and their dair}- rather ran down. 
They have now" placed it in the professor's hands and 
he is building tt'Up. The object is to sell the milk in 
New Brunswick. We are running two wagons into 
Elizabeth. As has been said by Mr. French and our 
president, we want to breed for qualit}' as well as quan- 
tity. We have bought some other breeds sometimes 
when short of milk and find the Ayrshire cows' milk is 
the best for the retailer, although we bottle our milk. If 
j^ou bottle Jersey milk and 3^ou take the cream off and 
let it stand a while, it looks like skimmed milk ; but the 
bottom of the A3'rshire milk will look better, is better, 
and is the best milk for children's use of an}' in the mar- 
ket. We have had Jerse3"s and Holsteins, and occa- 
sionalh" Guernse3's, but the A3'rshire is the best. I 
know of one instance where a ver3' weak child was 
raised with Ayrshire milk alone, and has grown to be 
a strong, health3" bo3', and I have known of a great 
man3^ such instances. It is an acknowledged fact with 
us that the Ayrshire milk is the best for human food. 
People generally do not appreciate what good milk 
reall}" is for the human famih", as well as for all 
}^oung animals in growing them, and I can assure 3^ou, 
as has been said, while we have kept some partial rec- 
ords, in our business hurry, we have uot kept them as 
complete as they should be. We are making tests now, 
or did last year, a number of times with the Babcock 

tests, and we are weeding out and raising from our best 
milkers giving the best qualit}^ of milk. 

Mr. French — A year ago this last ni}- 
farm buildings were struck b5' lighting which disorgan- 
ized ni}' farm a good deal, and ni}' records and other 
things were destro5^ed, so that I am just getting a fresh 
start and have not a large number of Ayrshire cattle-^- 
some twenty head. I have nothing remarkable to show 
at the present time, still I shall be ver}^ glad if there are 
any members here who would like to see them. I have 
a new barn, which is perhaps w^orth seeing. 

A motion was made by Mr. French that the salary 
of the secretar}^ be the same as last year, which motion 
was unanimously adopted. 

The Secretary — It is customary to vote where 
we shall hold the next annual meeting. Where will 
3'^ou hold it ? 

Tjhe President — Why is not Boston a good 
place ? 

After discussing the matter at some length it was 
finally voted to hold the next annual meeting in Boston. 

It was voted that the list of judges be referred to 
the Executive Committee for revision. 

It was voted that entries for the next volume of the 
herd-book be closed the first of October, 1900. 



It is the opinion of the Ayrshire Breeders' Associa- 
tion that the men selected by the Agricultural Fair As- 
sociations throughout the country, to judge A3^rshire 
cattle in the ring, should be men acquainted with A3'r- 
shire cattle, and men familiar with the scale of points 
and characteristics of the breed. 

The Executive Committee have selected the follow- 
ing names of men in different parts of the countrj^ whom 

we believe to be experts in judging Ayrshire cattle, and 
would recommend to Fair Associations as judges : 

Alonzo lyibby, Westbrook, Maine. 

Charles H. Hayes, Portsmouth, N. H. 

George H. Yeaton, Dover, N. H. 

W. R. Garvin, Dover, N. H. 

I^. S. Drew, Burlington, Vt. 

F. W. Spalding, Poultney, Vt. 

H. R. C. Watson, Brandon, Vt. 

C. M. Winslow, Brandon, Vt. 

J. D. W. French, North Andover, Mass. 

Obadiah Brovv^n, Providence, R. I. 

H. S. Joslin, Mohegan, R. I. 

Dudle}^ Wells, Wethersfield, Conn. 

S. M. Wells, Wethersfield, Conn. 

J. H. Larned, Putnam, Conn. 

B.C. Sears, Blooming Grove, N. Y. 

George Taber, East Aurora, N. Y. 

A. S. Tubbs, Mexico, N. Y. 
C. S. Barney, Milford, N. Y. 
Frank Converse, Woodville, N. Y. 
J. D. Magie, Elizabeth, N. J. 
William Eindsay, Elizabeth, N. J. 

B. Euther Shimer, Bethlehem, Pa. 
J. P. Beatty, Pataskala, Ohio. 
John Stewart, Elburn, 111. 

C. S. Plumb, Eafayette, Ind. 


The following are yields of milk that have been re- 
ported of 9,000 pounds and over for 365 consecutive 
days : 

Name No. A. R. Pounds of milk 

Olah, 11471 9020 

Belle Hebron, 13013 9084 

Rose Sultana, 12072 9172 

Roxie, 4498 9191 

Rose Deruth, 10346 9253 


No. A. R. 



Lad}^ Teazel, 


Rose Alta, 




Betty Lightfoot, 




^Lnnie Bert, 


Belle Temple, 


Roxanna 5th, 


Queen oi A\r, 


Island belle, 




Vinewood Queen, 


Ethel Douglas 



Rose Electa, 




Rose Eola, 


Jennie Ch^de, 


Oueeu of Avr 4th, 


Nellie Clyde, 


Rose Deross, 


Duchess of Srai 



Qijeen of Avr 5th, 




Queen Mar}^, 




Lad_v Mnrcia, 




Manton Queen 


• 6100 

Rena Myrtle, 


Lady Fox, 


Alice Douglas, 


Pound of miik. 





There is a long list of records of over 300 pounds, 
but we have given only those reported as 400 or over. 



Quess 2nd, 




Bessie Bell 3d, 


Tern pie. 


Juniper 4th, 


Duchess of Smithfield, 


Rose Cleon, 


Rose Electa, 


Rose Sultana, 


Rose Ladye, 




14.6 in 












49.8 in 

Jan., : 

57 8 
















in one 

Rose Clovis, 




Queen Sela^a, 




Rose Veritas, 




Rose Allie, 








Nancy B 2d, 








Nancy B, 




Annie Bert, 




Printsteps 2d, 







( ( 

Rose Alta, 




Rose Sultana, 




Minnehaha 3d, 
















Clio Rose, 







i ( 




1 1 

Rose Clenna, 




Rose Ladye, 




Rose Electa, 




Tola Lome, 




Rose Erica, 




Ren a Myrtle, 








Rose Deross, 




Lady Fox, 






(A paper read at the Minnesota State Dairyman's Association 
by John W. Scott, Austin, Minn.) 

The County of Ayr, not the Count}^ of Aja'shire, as 
a recent writer on breeds of cattle hath said : This 
count}" in the southwest part of Scotland has given the 
name to a breed of cattle noted for their dair}" qualities. 
The country w^hereof I speak, is generally low towards 
the sea-shore, gradually rising by eas}^ slopes, and wav}' 
undulations to a ridge of high or hilh^ countr^^ It has 
man}' woodlands and is well watered. The climate is 
moist and rather windy, although not severe. 

The soil throughout is of moderate fertility. Its 
principal crops or products are grasses, oats, wheat, 
turnips, potatoes, beets, etc. 

Dair}^ is the leading interest, although grazing is 
carried on to vSome extent. 

Ayrshire in olden times was divided into three dis- 
tinct districts, viz : Cunningham, Kyle and Carrick. 
Prior to the year 1780, the cattle kept in the districts of 
Kyle and Cunningham were a small, ill-fed, ill-shaped 
and inferior breed of cattle. 

Thus you see, ladies and gentlemen, that we in the 
south had no more to boast of than our honorable presi- 
dent had in Aberdeenshire. 

But to-day, what a w^onderful change has taken 
place. For instance, behold the Aberdeen, Angus and 
Cruickshank cattle. The}" in Aberdeenshire were bus}' 
piling on beef, while away down in Ayrshire they were 
hard at work packing butter and cheese. I imagine 
"Auld Cruickshank" saying, (were he living) "Shon 
Mathieson, hoo ye hae degenerated. Ye Dinna ken a 
guide quey when ye see it. What a pit}^ 3'e went awa' 
wi' auld mortality to the Isle of Sark, for ye're a' bones 
noo instead of guide, honest beef." 

There is an old adage in the County of Ayr, which 
is characteristic of the District of Cunningham, 
"Carrie for a man, 
K3de for a coo, 
Cunningham for butter and cheese. 

It was in this countr}^ that the plowman poet was 
born. But perhaps our Honorable Chairman will claim 
that it was in Aberdeenshire, as he claims all the cream, 
but an allusion is made in one of Burns' letters dated 
Nov. 13, 1788, to a heifer that had been presented to 
him by Mr. Dunlop, as the finest quey in x\yrshire, he 
kept x\5^rshires on his farm at BHisland, and at that time 
they had a high reputation, 

Ayrshire cattle of toda}^ like the improved short- 
horn, orio^inated from various crosses, but there is some 
uncertainty as to the early history of their crosses. 


It is said that the Holderness were introduced into 
the South of Scotland from the North of England, and 
it is probable that they may have been used ; again, the 
introduction of the Kerry from the coast of Ireland, and 
it is further claimed that the Dutch from Holland and 
the Alderny from the Channel Islands were also intro- 
duced into that country, and these various importations 
have given rise to the origin of crosses from those 
breeds, but notwithstanding the assumption, there is 
more or less of a resemblance to the said respective 
breeds, but the breed is undoubtedly descendant of the 
Kyloe, or native cattle of Scotland, modified by selec- 
tions, and these selections have been aided by crossing 
with other distant breeds. Whatever part these breeds 
may have had in the origin of the Ayrshire breed, it is 
certain that the hard-headed sense of the Scotsman, 
that evolved the steam engine into usefulness, had 
guided those engaged in moulding a dairy cow, which 
for average and general conditions stands without a peer 

Since 1805 marked improvements have been made 
in this breed of cattle, and in 1836 the Highland Agri- 
cultural society offered a premium for the competition 
of this breed. 

In 1853, for the first time, a recognized standard 
was adopted by the Ayrshire Agricultural Association. 

In 1866, '68 and '71, the various writers describing 
the Ayrshire cow, state that the chief point of merit is 
said to be, "a capacious and well set udder." 

It is a fact worthy of mention, that the Farmers' 
clubs and Agricultural societies in educating the farm- 
ers and offering premiums, have done more to improve 
this breed, or any other breed of cattle, as it has had 
the effect of creating greater interest and inciting strong- 
er efforts towards improvement. 


These cattle are now scattered throughout Great 
Britian, and have been introduced into other countries, 
viz : Finland, Norwa}" and Sweden, Holland, Austra- 
lia and New Zealand, South America, Japan and Can- 
ada, in all of which the}' are highly esteemed for their 
dair}" qualities. 

We must not overlook our own countr}', for in 1S22 
or '28 they were introduced into this country. In 1831 
there is some mention made of importations, and in 1837 
they were introduced into the New England states b}' 
the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agri- 
culture. The}^ are now scattered throughout the New 
England states, New York, Penns^dvania, South Caro- 
lina, California, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin, 
and a few herds have been introduced into our own 
Minnesota. In Canada this breed has been very popu- 
lar with dair3anen, and there being a similarity in the 
climate of Canada to our northwest, it would only go to 
show that they should become popular wdth us, being a 
hardy breed for our climate. 

It ma}' be well to direct your attention to this fact : 
That for a hundred years here is a breed of cattle which 
has been bred in a climate with its cold, bleak weather, 
rugged pasturage and scant}^ feed, that has been devel- 
oped into a hardy and enduring race of cattle. Here is 
a breed, bred, perhaps, for centuries, also in a country 
with a climate as severe in many respects as our own 
northwest — yes, I say — a country swept by frequent 
coast storms of sufficient severity to try the constitution 
of the most hardy cattle. Will this not count for some- 
thing in the selection of a breed for our farms in the 
Northwest ? 

In 1880 Prof. Sheldon, author of '"Dairy Farming," 
said of the Ayrshire : 

"They are wonderful milkers, doing well in nrilk 
where most breeds would hardly live, more completely 






■•■t:.r . ^ 




than most, if not all, other breeds, thej^ possess the 
property of converting into milk the elements of food. 
They are hardy enough to stand severe climates, while 
the}' have the faculty of quickly adapting themselves to 
altered conditions." 

The A3'rshire has kept abreast with im.provements 
until toda3% fellow dairymen, I have no hesitation in 
presenting to 3'our attention a breed of cattle that with 
careful selection and breeding, is bound to take the 
front rank as a dairy cattle throughout this Northwest. 

Every good farmer must keep up with improve- 
' xcnts, and if he has that in mind his motto will be, 
"Get There," whether in breeding cattle or tilling the 

Dr. Sturtevant, a noted breeder and writer on Ayr- 
shire cattle, says : "The Ajashire has a superabund- 
ance of nerves ; she is ever read}^ to employ them upon 
demand in self-defense or in self-support ; she asks lit- 
tle beyond a fair chance, yet all this nature in her is in 
reserve, and she does not use it wantonl}^ to disqualify 
her to be the pet of the household. She responds readily 
and appreciates good treatment, her looks appeal to ones 
intelligence to accord it to her. ' ' 

- The A^-rshires are of medium size. The cows aver- 
aging 1,000 pounds. They are short-legged, fine-boned 
and very active. They are wedge-shape generally, 
wide and low development of the brisket, insuring good 
constitution. The}^ have well developed hind parts, 
long, broad and straight, and deep at the flank. AH 
good specimens have well arched ribs, giving room for 
their digestive organs. When in milk they do not carrj^ 
a pound of extra flesh. In color the}^ are red, brown or 
white, or a mixture of these colors, each color being dis- 
tinctly defined. 

Again Mr. Peer, a large importer and one of the 
prominent judges at the Toronto Industrial exhibition, 


and other eastern agricultural exhibitions, writes re- 
centh^ : ^ 


"The best of their kind are the best in the world." 
That's a Scotchman's estimation of an up-to-date A^-r- 
shire coo. 

"Although I am not an A3'rshire breeder, I must 
sa3^ there is small chance of an argument with the 
Scotchman, except I should like to make this amend 
ment, 'the best of the kind are the best all-round dairy 
cow^s in the world.' 

"When you call on a Scotch breeder it is of no. use 
to ask him how much milk a cow gives. He does not 
know, or only says, 'I have never heard an}^ complaint 
of that coo.' If you go to the dairyman and ask him, 
he is not going to point out to a customer the best que}', 
for that is the sort he doesn't want his master to sell. 

"I remember once asking a Scotch breeder why it 
was the3^ did not go in for testing their cattle and giv- 
ing them milk records. 'A3'e mon,' he replied, 'but 
ye'r na' thinking o' the liars ye would be making o' the 
Scotchman.' Then looking at me sl3d3' he added, 'ye 
must na lead us into temptation.' Then I thought of 
the great amount of temptation that breeders in the 
United States are called upon to withstand when pub- 
lishing records. I had nothing to say. As my friend, 
Mr. Howie, often said, 'A coo is a coo and that's a' aboot 
it,' which is equivalent to saying, if a cow is a ^ood cow 
she will show it, and a man who knows his business can 
tell without leading his neighbor into temptation to lie 
about her performance. 

"I am informed that the ist, 2d and 3d prize cows 
in the ring of cows at S3^racuse this year were all over 
sixty pound cows, and they looked it. He ends by say- 
ing : 'To my mind they are the highest and most per- 

feet utilit}^ cow that has ever been produced, all in spite 
of their rare beaut}' and style.' 

"Before closing, Mr. Chairman, I wish to make a 
few remarks as to the qualities of the Ayrshire, first as 
a milk producer and lastly as a neat animal. I do not 
wish to weary 3'ou, and I do not want to be led into 
temptation, so will pass over a few facts briefly and con- 
fine ni3'self to official statements. 

"At the British Dairy show in 1879, twelve samples 
of milk were tested representing seven different breeds 
and three crosses. One Ayrshire, three Jersej^s, one 
Guernse}^ one Kerry, one Dexter, one Brittan^^ and two 
Dutch cows. Highest on the list ranked the Aj^rshire, 
showing the least water and most fat, followed in turn 
by the three Jerseys and the others in the order named 

"The Ayrshire gav^e 5^2 per cent, butter fat, and 
the Dutch cows only 2^/i and 2^2 per cent, butter fat. 

At the same show in 1880 an Aj^rshire in competi- 
tion with eighteen other cows of noted breeds, 3delded 
twenty-five pounds and two ounces of milk and in pure 
butter fat 6.82 per cent., and was only beaten by a Jer- 
se}^ with 7.78 per cent., which, however, only yielded 
for the da}^ sixteen pounds of milk. 

At the Vermont Experiment Station in 1895, Rena 
Myrtle, H. R. 9530, gave 12,172 pounds of milk and 
546 pounds of butter. 

At the Vermont State Fair in the fall of 1897, the 
average of the 12 A3'rshire cows in the butter fat 
test was 4.99 per cent. 

At the New Hampshire Experiment Station, with 
four cows of each breed, the average result for a full 
year test was as follows : 

Pounds of milk, 
Pounds of butter. 
Per cent of butter fat, 4.28 
Cost of keeping. 
Pounds of butter, 













:, 4.28 













In the report of the New Jerse}' Experiment Station, 
experimenting for the most of the time with three cows 
of each of the following breeds, the average cost of food 
per quart of milk was: A3^rLhire, 1.66 cents, Gurnsey, 
1. 71 cents, Holstein F., 1.75 cents, Jersey, 1.91 cents, 
Shorthorn, 1.71 cents. 

As a cheese cow she will give an average of from 
600 to 1200 pounds in a yesir. 

The pure Ayrshire cow. Duchess of Smithfield, H. 
R. No. 4256, weight 1128 pounds, has a certified record 
of 19 lbs., 6 oz. of butter in seven days, and 3aelded 44 
lbs. of milk in one da}^ ; 463 3-4 lbs. in seven days ; and 
10,748 lbs. in one year. I will now exhibit a picture of 
this cow for your inspection, she is an American bred 
cow, and some six times removed from importation. 

I now come to my last qualit}', which is of the least 
importance in dairy cattle, but which counts for some- 
thing in the consideration of all the good points of a 
breed ; that is, they should feed quickh^, and this the 
Ayrshire will do, for when fed for the butcher then all 
her energies are directed to meet the demand. 

I have another picture here which I will exhibit. 

This is a typical Aj^rshire cow. She was farrow at 
the time this picture was taken, having been milking 
over a year and a half. 

Some of 3^ou dairymen wdll take exception to so 
much flesh as this cow displays, but this must be said of 
the Aj^rshire : that she is always busy, and when not 
giving milk she is ever ready to give a good return in 

I have a j^oung Aj^rshire in the feed box at present 
and it is surprising how rapidlj^ it is piling on beef, and 
as my countr3^man (Mr. Aiorton), whom I see in the 
audience, will bear me out, that we Scotchmen consider 
the Ayrshire meat the choicest. This general utility 
cow^ of which I have been speaking has had no booms 

as some other breeds have had, but continued to 
advance and holds its ground wherever it has been in- 




The dairy breed of cows in A3^rshire, now so much 
and so greatly esteemed, are not an ancient or indigen- 
ous race, but are a breed begun to be formed, first b}^ 
the inhabitants of the bailliary of Cunningham in that 
count}^ within the last forty, and chiefl}^ within the 
last twenty 3^ears. It appears, from an adage in the 
county of Ayr, that dairy husbandry had not only been 
practised in Cunningham, but that the making of butter 
and cheese had become the peculiar and distinguishing 
boast of the district at a verj^ remote period ; and the 
last and present generations of the inhabitants have 
shown that they still attend to that branch of industrj^ 
and have greatly improved on the favorite practices of 
their ancestors. 

But though dairy husbandry has for many ages 
past been more attended to in the bailiary of Cunning- 
ham than in any other district in Scotland, it was only 
during the present generation that an}^ material im- 
provement was begun to be made, or even attempted, on 
the breed of cows in that district ; and it is only within 
the last twenty j^ears or thereby, that that improvement 
merited notice. 

Every person now of fifty years of age or upwards, 
who has paid attention, from their youth, to the cattle 
in that district, will remember that the cows in the 
bailliary of Cunningham, and in that of Kjde, were gen- 
erally, till after the year 1780, a pun}^ unshapel}^, and 

* From Harleian Dair}^ System, 1829. 
t Mr. Alton's work was bestm in 1815. 


inferior breed of cattle, not superior in size, shapes, or 
qualities, to those still met with in the higher parts of 
Clydesdale, Peebleshire, or those in the islands of Arran 
and Bute. They were even inferior to these, from not 
being nearly so well fed as cattle generall}' now are in 
every district, except in some parts of the North High- 

The cows then kept in the districts of Kyle and 
Cunningham w^ere of a diminutive size, ill-fed ill-shaped, 
and 3delded but a scant}^ return in milk ; they were 
mostly of a black color, with large stripes of white 
along the chine or ridge of their backs, about their 
flanks or on their faces. Their horns were high and 
crooked, having deep ringlets at the root ; the plainest 
proof that the cattle were but scantily fed. The chine 
of their backs stood up high and narrow ; their sides 
were lank, short and thin ; their hides thick, and 
adhering to the bones ; their pile was coarse and open ; 
and few of them ^nelded more than three or four Scots' 
pints of milk per day, when in their best plight ; or 
weighed when fat more than from twelve or sixteen to 
twent}^ stones avoirdupois., sinking offal. 

It was impossible that, these cattle, fed as the}^ then 
w^ere, could be of great weight, well shaped, or 3'ield 
much milk. Their onl}^ food in winter and spring was 
oat-straw, and w^hat they could pick up in the fields, ' 
to which they were turned out almost every da}'^ ; with 
a mash of weak corn and chaff daily for a few days 
after calving. And their pasture in summer was of the 
very worst quality, and eaten so bare that the cattle 
were half starved. The land w^as then under such bar- 
barous courses of cropping, and so much overcropped, 
that, when turned to pasture, it yielded little else but 
weeds, and a few natural grasses of the worst qualit)^ ; 
and that coarse pasture was so much overstocked, and 

eaten so bare, that the cattle were half starved, and had 
the aspect of starvelings. 

A wonderful change has since been made in the 
condition, aspect, and qualities of the A3'rshire dairy 
stock. Thev are not now the meagre unshapely 
animals they were about fort}^ 3^ears ago ; but have been 
completely changed into something as different from 
what the}^ were then, as any two breeds in the island 
can be from each other. They are almost double the 
size, and 3aeld about four times the quantity of milk 
that the Ayrshire cow^s then yielded. Formerl}- they 
were not of anj^ specific breed, nor uniformity of shapes 
or color, neither was there an\^ fixed standard b}' which 
the^^ could be judged. But now the}' are generalh' of a 
brown and white color, in mixed patches ; and rules 
have been adopted for determining the purit}^ of the 
breed and excellence of their qualit}^ 

These alterations, although thej- are extensive, 
have not been made by merel}' selling the farm stock, 
and replacing^ them with a different breed; but the 
changes have been effected upon the former breed, 
partly by skillful breeding, and still more by better 
feeding and treatment. 

But though these improvements in the dair}" stock 
of Ayrshire were begun and brought to its present 
advanced state within the recollection of thousands who 
are still alive ; and though I kept a dairy stock for • 
some time in the centre of the district where these 
improvements were first introduced, and about the time 
when they began to be improved, — I have not been 
able to trace the commencement of them to an}^ partic- 
ular person or family. 

About the year 1760, or between that and 1770, 
some noblemen and gentlemen who resided in the 
eastern and southern counties of Scotland, procured 
cows of some English or Dutch breed, which were much 


larger in size than any other then in Scotland ; and 
when these were well fed, on the sheltered and improved 
lands round the seats of their owners, the}' 3delded far 
more milk than the native cows. It was their greater 
size, and the superior quality' of milk they 3'ielded, that 
induced these noblemen and others to purchase them ; 
and wherever their feeding in Scotland corresponded to 
what they had been accustomed to eat, their owners 
were not disappointed. But wdien these large cows 
were turned into pasture that was much inferior to that 
on which they had been reared, they fell short in milk- 
ing, as all cows that are not well fed will do. 

I am really uncertain as to the district or countr}- 
from which these stranger cows were brought. The}' 
certainly were denominated Dutch cows when first 
introduced into A^-rshire. But from their being of a 
brown and white color, I am disposed to believe the}' 
were of the Teeswater breed. 

Neither have I been able to discover who it was 
that first introduced them into the bailliary of Cunning- 
ham, nor to point out all those who did so. John 
Dunlop, Esq., of Dunlop, brought some of these 
English or Dutch cows to his byres at Dunlop House in 
Cunningham, soon after the year 1760. As they were 
there provided with the best of pasture, as the dairy 
was much attended to in that neighborhood, and as the 
'improved breed of the mixed broi'/n and white color 
came into vogue about Dunlop and Stewarton sooner 
than in any other part of Cunningham, it is likely that 
Mr. Dunlop 's were among the first of the stranger breed 
that reached Cunningham. 

The Earl of Marchmount, about 1750, purchased 
from the Bishop of Durham several cows, and a bull of 
the Teeswater or some English breed, all of a brown 
color, spotted with white ; and his lordship kept them 
sometime at his seat in Berwickshire. Bruce Campbell, 

Hsq., then factor on his lordship's estates in A^-rshire, 
carried some of that breed to Sornbeg in Kjde, where 
the}" were kept some time, and their progeny spread 
over different parts of i\.3^rshire. A bull of that stock, 
after coupling with man 3^ cows on the estate of Cessnock, 
was b}^ Mr. Campbell sold to John Hamilton, Esq., of 
Sundrum, and raised a numerous offspring in that 
quarter of Ayrshire. 

John Orr, Esq., of Borrowfield, about the 3^ear 1767, 
sent from Glasgow, or from some part in that neighbor- 
hood, to his estate of Grougar, A3'rshire, several fine 
milk-cows of a much larger size than any then on that 
estate. One of these cost six pounds, which was more 
than twice the price of the best cows then in that quarter. 
As these cows were well fed, the3^ 3delded a good return 
in milk, and the farmers in that neighborhood were 
eager to procure their calves, in hopes of obtaining 
similar returns. Cattle of the same appearance were 
about that time brought to Eglinton, Loudon, and to 
the seats of other noblemen and gentlemen in Ayrshire : 
and as most of those were of the same color, brown, 
spotted or freaked with w^hite ; as all of them were larg- 
er, and when duh'- fed yielded much more milk than 
the native breed, — their calves were reared by such as 
could procure them, and bulls of that breed, or even of 
their color, were preferred to all others. From these, 
or from crosses of them with the native cows, the whole 
district has been stocked ; and the breed has attained 
such celebrity, that they have not onh^ supplied the 
counties of A3^r, Renfrew, and greatest part of Lanark, 
but, for about twenty 3'ears past, colonies of the improv- 
ed breed have been carried from Ayrshire to every coun- 
ty of Scotland and to many counties of England. 


By the late Sandford Howard. 

January 1, 1863. 

The breed of cattle now known as the Ayrshire un- 
doubtedly originated in the county of that name in Scot- 
land, but by w^hat special means it was formed cannot 
be particularly told. Youatt (1835) sa\^s : "A century 
ago there was no such breed in Ayrshire or in Scotland" 
and he asks, "did the [present] Ayrshire cattle arise en- 
tirely from a careful selection of the native breed?" add- 
ing, " If they did, it is a circumstance unparalleled in 
the histor}^ of agriculture. The native breed may be 
ameliorated by careful selection ; its value ma}^ be in- 
calculably increased ; some good qualities ma}^ for the 
first time be developed : but yet there will be some re- 
semblance to the original stock." A comparison of the 
modern breed with the description given by Aiton of 
the cattle which he says occupied Ayrshire fifty years 
before the time when he wrote (1806), will show that 
the difference is great. He says: " The cows kept in 
the districts of Kyle and Cunningham [districts o± Ayr- 
shire] were of a diminutive size, ill-fed, ill-shaped, and 
they yielded but ascant}^ return in milk; the}^ were 
mostly of a black color, with stripes of white along their 
chine or ridge of their backs, about their flanks, and on 
their faces. Their horns were high and crooked, . . . 
their pile [hair] was coarse and open, and few of them 
jdelded more than three or four Scotch pints [six to 
eight wine quarts] of milk a day." 

Those who are acquainted with the Ayrshire cattle 
of to-da37^ will readily admit that they present a wide 
contrast with the old stock, according to the above de- 
scription of the latter ; and the suggestion of Youatt, 

*Published in Vol. I, Herd Record of the Association of Breed- 
ers of Thoroughbred Neat Stock, Ayrshire. 

' 51 
that the present breed could not have arisen entirely by 
selection from the old, seems reasonable. It follows, 
then, that the Ayrshire, like the modern or " improved " 
Shorthorn breed, originated in crossing. The question 
as to 'the breeds from which it w^as derived will be brief- 
ly considered, although the attempt will not be made to 
give precise details on this point. 

Various accounts represent that the Earl of March- 
mont, sometime between 1724 and 1740, introduced to 
his estates, in Berwickshire, some cattle, conjectured 
(their history was not positively known) to be of the 
Holderness or Teeswater breed ; and that, not long af- 
terwards, some of the stock was carried to estates be- 
longing to the same Nobleman, in that part of Ayrshire 
called Kyle. But perhaps the main nucleus of the im- 
proved breed was the " Dunlop stock," so called, which 
appears to have been possessed by a distinguished fam- 
ily by the name of Dunlop, in the Cunningham district 
of Ayrshire, as early as 1780. This stock, was derived, 
it is said, at least in part, from animals imported from 
Holland. The Dunlop cows soon became noted. Raw- 
lin (as quoted by Youatt) , who wrote in 1794, speaking 
of the cattle of Ayrshire, sa5^s : "They have another 
breed, called the Dunlop, which are allowed to be the 
best race for yielding milk in Great Britain or Ireland, 
not only for large quantities, but also for richness and 
quality." This, though extravagant praise, perhaps, 
shows that the stock possessed remarkable qualities at 
that early day. It was, indeed, held in great esteem 
still earlier. In Youatt' s treatise, it is mentioned, when 
speaking of the catlle of Dumfriesshire, that the poet 
Burns, when he occupied a farm near the city of Dum- 
fries, "not content w^ith the Galloway breed, introduced 
some of the w^est-country cows, which he thought 
would produce more milk." In the poet's published 

correspondence, allusion is made, in a letter dated 
Nov. 13, 1788, to a heifer which had been presented to 
him b}^ the proprietor of Dunlop House, as "the finest 
que}^ in Ayrshire." Mrs. Dunlop, it will be remem- 
bered, was a special friend and correspondent of the 

Colonel lye Couteur, in a paper on the Jerse}^ or 
Alderney cow, published in the Journal of the Roj-al 
Agricultural Society, refers to a statement by Quayle, 
that the Ayrshire was a cross of the Shorthorn and 
Alderney ; and adds himself that ' 'there is a consider- 
able affinit}^ between the two breeds." Rawdin also 
sa^'S, in reference to the Ayrshire breed : "It is said to 
be a mixture b}^ bulls brought from the Island of 
Alderney with their own or the old race of cows." 
Martin sa3'S : "At some period or other there has 
evidently been a cross with the Durham or Holderness, 
and perhaps also with the x\lderney." Professor Low, 
in his "Illustrations of British Quadrupeds," sa3^s : 
"From all the evidence which, in the absence of 
authentic documents, the case admits of, the dairy breed 
of Ayrshire cows owes the characters which distinguish 
it from the older race to a mixture of the blood of the 
races of the continent and of the dairy breed of 

So far the authorities quoted have doubtless given 

the main facts in regard to the originals of the present 

Ayrshire cattle. But there is evidence that the present 

leading type of the breed was formed, in part, b}" an 

infusion of the blood of the K3doe, or West Highland 

"As a further explanation of the preference given by Burns for 
the "west-country cows," the writer would mention that, in 1858, 
he had several interviews with the poet's sister, the late Mrs. 
Begsf, of Ayr, in one of which she stated that her brother, during 
his occupancy of the farm of Ellisland.near Dumfries, kept a dair^-, 
and made considerable quantities of cheese. Thus his efforts to 
procure the A^^rshire cow shows that they had, even at that time, 
a high reputation for this object. 

breed. This appeared, in tlie first instance, probably, 
in what has been called the Swinley variet}^ The 
facts, which the writer has obtained in Scotland in 
regard to it, are substantially as follows : Theophilus 
Parton, of Swinley farm, near Dairy, A5'rshire, about 
forty to fort3^-five years ago took great pains to establish 
a herd of what were deemed the best A5^rshire cattle, 
into which he infused a strain of the West Highland 
blood, the particular degree of which is not publicly or 
generalh^ known. The Swinley stock differs from the 
older Ayrshire in having a shorter head, with more 
breadth across the ej^es, more upright and spreading 
horns, more hair, and generally better constitutions. 
They are also somew^hat smaller boned than the old 
stock, though, from their superior S5mimetry and greater 
tendency to fatten, the}^ are fully equal to the former in 
weight of carcass when slaughtered. 

The following points, given by the A3^rshire 
Agricultural Association, 1853, "as indicating superior 
quality," will give an idea of the standard for Aj^rshire 
cattle, as recognized b}^ the leading breeders : — 

Head short, forehead wide, nose fine between the 
muzzle and the eyes, muzzle moderately large, eyes full 
and lively, horns widely set on, inclining upwards and 
curving slightly inwards. 

Neck long and straight from the head to the top of 
the shoulders, free from loose skin on the underside, 
fine at its junction with the head, and the muscles 
symmetrically enlarging towards the shoulders. 

Shoulders thin at the top, brisket light, the whole 
forequarter thin in front, and gradually increasing in 
depth and width backwards. 

Back short and straight, spine well defined, 
especially at the shoulders, short ribs arched, the body 
deep at the flanks, and the milk veins well developed. 


Pelvis long, broad, and straight ,' hook [or hip j 
bones wide apart, and not much overlaid with fat ; 
thighs deep and broad ; tail long and slender, and set 
on a level wnth the back. 

Milk-vessel [udder] capacious, and extending well 
forward, hinder part broad, and firml}^ attached to the 
body, the sole or under surface nearl}^ level. The teats 
from tw^o to two and a half inches in length, equal in 
thickness, and hanging perpendicularly^ ; their distance 
apart at the sides should be equal to about one-third 
the length of the vessel, and across to about one-half 
the breadth. 

I^egs short, the bones fine and the joints firm. 

Skin soft and elastic, and covered with soft, close, 
and wooll}^ hair. 

The colors preferred are brown, or brown and 
white, the colors being distinctly defined. Weight of 
the animal, when fattened, about fortj^ imperial stones, 
sinking the offal (that is 560 pounds), the quarters or 
meat only. 

From w^hat has already been said, it wall be 
understood that the dairy is the leading object with the 
breeders of iVyrshires. At the same time, the fact has 
not been overlooked that to breed and perpetuate a 
profitable dairy stock, regard must be had to hardiness 
and strength of constitution, and also to such fattening 
tendencies as will insure a profitable return from calves 
fattened for veal, from steers reared for beef, and for 
cows which, having served their turn in the dair^^, are 
at last dried of their milk, and prepared for the 
shambles. The importance of these properties is not 
sufficiently regarded by keepers of dairy stock in this 
country. The remark has not unfrequently been heard 
that the ''looks of a coav are nothing." People who 
hold this absurd notion will never be distinguished for 
breeding profitable dairy stock. Even if milk were the 

sole object, it would be impossible to preserve a breed 
possessing superior qualities, in this respect, without 
giving attention to those points of form which denote 
strength of constitution. It has been well observed 
by Magne, that, in the breeding of dairy stock, we 
should "make choice only of animals possessing the 
twofold character of general vigor ^ and activity of the 
maTnmary system^ 

The leading breeders of Ayrshire, in Scotland, 
have followed these principles to some extent, if not to 
the full degree to which they should be observed. 
Hence they claim a high rank for the breed in reference 
to general usefulness. Alton, speaking of what the 
Ayrshire cow would do, says : "She yields much milk, 
and that of an oily or but3'raceous or caseous nature, 
and after she has jaelded very large quantities of milk 
for several years, she will be as valuable for beef as any 
other breed of cows known ; her fat shall be 'much more 
mixed through the whole flesh, and she shall fatten 
faster than any other." Whatever may be said in 
regard to the extent of these claims, it will be admitted 
that they indicate the confidence which was long ago 
placed in the breed in regard to the properties 
mentioned. Youatt, who wrote twenty-five years after 
Alton, says: "The breed has been much improved 
since Mr. Alton described it. " It is thirty years since 
Mr. Youatt made this remark, and in this time the 
breed has been still further improved in reference to 
general usefulness. I have been assured by some of 
the most experienced breeders in Scotland that, while 
nothing has been lost on the score of dairy properties, 
considerable has been gained in hardiness and thrift, 
and in the faculty of giving a greater return, both in 
milk and flesh, for the food consumed. Of course it is 
the return obtained, in proportion to the food eaten, 
that constitutes the true criterion of value in all animals. 


In Scotland, the calves of the Ayrshire breed that 
are not wanted for keeping up the breeding or dair^^ 
stock are either fattened for veal or turned for beef at 
an earl}^ age. The larger portion, perhaps, of the males 
are killed for veal. In fact, in some districts veal is an 
article of considerable importance, and the abilit}^ of 
Ayrshire cows to make fat calves is considered one of 
the excellencies of the breed. Thus, Haxton observes: 
"For all medium soils and climates throughout the 
United Kingdoin, there is no breed equal to the 
Ayrshire for profit, whether the produce is converted 
into cheese, butter, or veal.'" A portion of the males 
are castrated and fattened when about three to three 
and a half years old. Scotch farmers, who are in the 
practice of fattening stock of various breeds, assured me 
that A3^rshire steers of this age fattened to as much 
profit as an}', reaching the weight of 700 to 800 pounds 
the four quarters, and afforded beef excelled in quality' 
only by the Galloways and the West Highlanders. 

At present the Ayrshire cattle have not been tried 
in America to a great extent. There have been various 
importations, mostly made within the last twent}^ 3^ears; 
and so far as there have been such trials as would 
justif}" a conclusion in regard to their merits, they have 
answered all reasonable expectations. The leading 
object in keeping them here is the same as it is in 
Scotland, — the dairy ; but their ability to fatten readil}^ 
and make beef of good qualit}^ should be taken into 
consideration in estimating their value. In regard to 
the latter property, but few trials have as yet been 
made here. Most of the males have been kept for bulls, 
and the females have seldom been fattened till too far 
advanced in 3- ears to breed. It may be worth3^ of 
consideration, W'hether it would not be an object to 
give some good steers of the breed a fair chance to show 
what they could make in beef at three to four 3^ears old. 





It is also desirable to ascertain what are the 
capabilities of the breed in regard to the performance of 
labor. On this point we are without any evidence from 
abroad, as oxen are not worked in Scotland. The 
results of the few trials that have been made with full- 
bloods have been highly favorable in reference to the 
qualities of the breed for this purpose. Judging by 
their points, there is no reason why Ayrshire oxen 
should not be equal to any others of their size for any 
kind of labor. They have clean, firm legs, well placed 
muscles, and are remarkabl}^ quick walkers. 

The advantages of a Registry, or Herd Book, for 
this breed of cattle, are too obvious to require argument. 
For the Shorthorns, Herefords, and. Devons registers 
have been prepared, and the benefits which have been 
derived therefrom are such as will insure their continu- 
ance . An accurate record of the pedigrees of animals, 
together with a recced of such pre^^'ums as they may 
•have taken, cannot fail to*afford a gu-Kk_ u -^ :tent, 
in breeding 'with reference to special objects ; the 
principle that "like begets like" being admitted as a 
general law. The subject of publishing a Herd Book 
for Ayrshires, in Scotland, has been agitated on several 
occasions, but down to the present time no direct action 
has been taken on it. The enterprise of the American 
breeders of this variety of cattle, in taking the lead in 
this matter, is highly creditable, and, if properly 
follow^ed up, will be sure to bring a just recompense of 



I am occasionally inquired of b}' persons un- 
acquainted with Ayrshire cattle: "Are Ayrshire cows 
profitable cow^s for a milkman ? " "What are the}^ for 
butter cows ? " "Are the\" quick growing, and do they 
make good beef cattle ?" "What kind of a cross are the}' 
on Jerseys ? " 

I AYill try to answer the above questions in the 
following article : 


All the breeds of 'cattle that are of any special 
value show a tendenc}' to excel in some one line of 
product, and, w^hiie the}' ma}' be prett}' good in several, 
are extra good in one definite line. 

If I were asked to give my personal opinion of the 
place where an Ayrshire cow would do her best and be 
the most profitable to her owner, I should say in 
supplying milk for retail trade in towns and cities, 
because she is a medium sized cow which is acknowl- 
edged to be the size best adapted to economical 
production. * She is a tough, hardy cow, seldom having 
anything ail her, either in body or udder. She has a 
vigorous appetite, not at all dainty in her food, eating 
with a relish whatever is placed before her, good or 

She is a rapid feeder and soon gets her fill and 
goes to chewing her cud, which she is always doing in 
a very rapid manner even while being driven along 
the road, and I have often seen them when being 
started into a run, keep on chewing as they ran. 

If there is any food in the pasture, either good or 
poor grass, browse, or weeds, the Ayrshire cow will find 
it and get her fill. 


She is a very uniform and persistent milker, drying 
off slowly and milking well up to calving. 

She is quiet and pleasant in her disposition, if 
kindly treated or if let alone, but will resent abuse. 
She is intelligent, quick to learn and of a retentive 
memory. Can easily be taught to take the same place 
in a stable and will alwa3^s go to that place until moved 
to another. She is not easil}^ disturbed at milking 
time, pays no attention to noise and gives her milk as 
readily to one milker as another. She is a very 
economical producer of milk, giving a large amount of 
good qualit}' for the food consumed. Official tests have 
shown her to produce 4 per cent, milk at a cost of less 
than two cents per quart on an average. 

The milk itself is particularl}^ adapted to the 
various requirements of the trade. It is produced at a 
small cost, is of good quality for inspection, has a good 
bod}^ to it and never looks blue, has good keeping 
quality and will bear transportation without churning 
or souring. Will, after standing over night, easily 
remix the cream into the milk, and when once remixed 
will not readily rise again. The milk is particularh' 
adapted to table use and for food for invalids and 
^children, being attractive looking and evenly balanced 
in casein and butter fat, making it a complete food and 
easily digested. Another peculiar qualitj^ of the 
Ayrshire milk is that the curd instead of being leather}^ 
and tough is easil}'- crumbled to pieces, which renders 
it much more easily digested. 

There is no milk so healthy as Aj'-rshire milk, and 
people with w^eak digestive organs, and young children, 
thrive on it and are uniformly free from stomach and 
intestinal troubles. 

I have just received the report of the Vermont 
Experiment Station for 1899, where the}^ have a herd of 

59 Jersey, and high grade Jersey, and three A^^rshire 
cows. The report shows an average of 5296 pounds of 
milk for the 42 cows, and an average of 6879 pounds 
for the Ayr^hires. The average cost of 100 pounds of 
milk for the whole herd is 93.4, and for the A5r5hires 
64.5, which w^ould make the Ayrshire milk cost a 
fraction over i 1-2 cents per quart. The}^ state that the 
cost of milk is from the cost of food laid down in the 
barn, but that the roughage is rated at prices more than 
high enough to cover cost of raising and harvesting in 
averasre seavSons, 


While the Ayrshire seems by nature adapted to the 
production of milk to be used on the table and for food 
in its original form, still she is no mean butter cow^ her 
milk being rich in butter fat, but as the cream rises 
slowl}^ it is much more profitable to use a separator, 
for, wath a separator the cream is as readily extracted 
from Ayrshire milk as from any other, and there is no 
noticeable difference in the churnability of Ayrshire 
cream from that of an}' of the butter breeds. 

The report of the Vermont Experiment Station for 
1899, just received, with a herd of 39 registered and - 
high grade Jerseys and three Ayrshires, gives the 
average cost of one pound of butter for the whole herd 
at 15.6 cents, and 14.7 cents for the Ayrshires, making 
the Ayrshires produce both milk and butter at a less 
cost than the Jerseys. 

The average proceeds from the sales of butter from 
the whole herd was $80.55, and from the Ayrshires 
$77.71. While the average of the Ayrshires for butter 
fell below the Jerse3^s $2.84, thej^ averaged 1583 pounds 
more milk, which for feeding purposes would more than 
offset the $2.84 less butter, making the Ayrshire the 


more profitable as a butter cow taking the extra milk 
into consideration. 

At this same Station, a few years ago, an Ayrshire 
cow, Rena M^^rtle, made a record of 12172 pounds of 
milk and 546 pounds of butter in one year, being the 
largest yield made at the Station by an^^ cow of any 

My opinion is, that next to supplying milk for the 
trade the Ayrshire cow is particularly adapted to 
supplying sweet cream for the trade because she gives 
a large quantity of smooth, even, cream that is superior 
for table use and for the manufacture of ice cream. 

* BEEF. 

We do not claim the Ayrshire to be a beef animal 
or even a general purpose cow, but as she is of fair size 
and an easy keeper, she will pay the cost of raising 
whenever it is desired to turn her into beef. She has 
heavy hind quarters and thick loins, and her meat is 
nicel^^ flecked with tallow even as a two year old. 

The steers, pure bred and grades, mature early and 
are of fair size, and are as profitable for beef as it is 
possible for a dairy breed to be. 

I have seen Ayrshire oxen and they appeared to be 
good ones. They were of fair size, handsome looking 
and sprightly, and were said to be tough and enduring. 

A favorite cross seems to be that of an Ayrshire 
bull on high grade Jerseys, the result of which appears 
to produce a cow larger than the Jersey with more 
hardiness, not so nervous as the pure bred Jersey, 
giving more milk, and making a good all-round dairy 

This cross began to be tried several 3'ears ago and 
there is a continual call for Ayrshire bulls for this 




We, the undersigned, breeders of Ayrshire cattle, 
recognizing the importance of a trustworthy Het-d Book 
that shall be accepted as a final authorit}^ in all questions 
of Pedigree, and desiring to secure the co-operation of 
all who feel an interest in preserving the purit}-: of this 
stock, do hereby agree to form an Association for the 
publication of a Herd Book, and for such other purposes 
as may be conducive to the interests of Breeders, and 
adopt the following Constitution : . 


This Association shall be called The Association of 
Ayrshire Breeders. 


The members of the Association shall comprise 
onl}^ the original signers of this Constitution, and such 
other persons as maj'- be admitted, as hereafter provided. 


The officers of the Association shall consist of a 
President, four Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, a 
Secretar^^ w^ho, together with six members of the 
Association, all chosen by ballot, shall constitute an 
Executive Committee. 

The President, Vice-Presidents, Treasurer and 
Secretary shall be elected annually. 

The six members who make up the balance of the 
Executive Committee shall be elected as follows : Two 
members for one 3'ear ; two members for two years, and 
two members for three 3^ears, and hereafter two 
members shall be elected each year for a term of three 

The Treasurer shall present at the annual meeting 
<of the Association a full statement of his accounts, 
audited b}^ two members of the Association, appointed 
by the Executive Committee. 

The Executive Committee shall, under the general 
direction of the Association, prescribe the manner in 
which the business of the Association shall be conducted; 
shall have general control of all matters pertaining to 
its interests ; shall have authority to appoint an Editor 
of the Herd Book, and may fill any vacancies occurring 
among the of&cers. The office of Secretary, Treasurer, 
and Editor may be filled by the same person. 

The Treasurer, Secretary, and Editor shall receive 
compensation for their services, to be fixed by the 
Association. The Treasurer shall give such bonds as 
may be required b}' the Executive Committee. 

The annual meeting of the Association shall be 
held each year, at such time and place as shall be 
vlesignated by the Executive Committee (of which 
notice shall be sent to members at least one month 
previous) , for the discussion of questions of interest to 
the members, and for the election of officers for the 
ensuing 3'ear. Special meetings of the Association ma}^ 
be called by the President or by the Executive Com- 
mittee or at the written request of ten members. 
Twenty days' notice must be given and the object of 
the meeting announced in the call, and no business 
other than that specified in the call shall be transacted 
at the special meeting. Time and place shall be 
determined in same way as annual meeting. 

At all meetings of the Association members may 
vote in person, or by proxy, or they may send their 
ballots by mail to the Secretary, whose duty it shall be 
to vote the same and to acknowledge their receipt. At 


least twent}'^ members present, represented by proxy, or 
written ballot, shall be a quorum for transacting 


Onl}^ breeders of Ayrshire cattle shall be eligible 
for membership, and members shall be elected at an}^ 
regular meeting of the Association ; also by the unani- 
mous written consent of the Executive Committee at 
any time between the annual meetings, subject to the 
following conditions : 

Each applicant for membership shall be recommen 
ded by one or more members of the Association, as a 
trustworthy and careful breeder ; and no new member 
shall be admitted if objected to b}" any officer of the 

The Secretary shall notify the candidate of his 
rejection, or in case of his election that he will be 
admitted as a member on signing the Constitution and 
paying the initiation fee. 

An applicant who has been rejected shall not be 
voted on again until two years from the date of his 
rejection, unless b}^ the unanimous consent of the 
officers of the Association. 


Each member shall pa}^ an initiation fee of twenty - 
five dollars. These fees shall constitute an Association 
Fund to defray the expenses of publishing the Herd 
Book, and other charges incidental to the organization 
of the Association and to the transaction of its 

No officer or member shall be authorized to con- 
tract any debt in the name of the Association. 


The Herd Book shall be edited by an Editor 
appointed for that purpose, under the control and 


supervision of the Executive Committee, and shall be 
published only with its official approval. 

The charge for entry of the Pedigree of each 
animal belonging to a member of the Association shall 
be fixed by the Executive Committee, but shall not 
exceed one dollar, except for an animal two years old. 

Animals not belonging to mem^bers of the Associa- 
tion may be entered in the Herd Book upon the 
payment of twice the amount charged to members. 

The Herd Book charges shall be appropriated to 
the examination and verification of Pedigrees, and the 
preparation of the Herd Book, which shall be published 
by the Association and shall be its property. The price 
of the Herd Book shall be determined by the Executive 
Committee. The Editor shall keep on file all documents 
constituting his authority for Pedigrees, and shall hold 
them subject to the inspection of any member of the 
Association, and shall deliver them to his successor in 


Should it occur at any time that any member of the 
Association shall be charged with wilful misrepresen- 
tation in regard to any animal, or with any other act 
derogator}^ to the standing of the Association, the 
Executive Committee shall examine into the matter ; 
and if it shall find there is foundation for such a chars^e, 
the offending member may be expelled by a vote of 
two-thirds of the members of the Association, present 
or represented, at any regular meeting. 


This Constitution may be altered or amended by a 
vote of two-thirds of the members present or represented 
by proxy, at any annual meeting of the Association. 

Notice of proposed alterations or amendments shall 
be given in the call for said meeting. 


1. Onh^ such animals shall be admitted to the 
Herd Book as are proved to be either imported from 
Scotland or descended from such imported animals. 

2. All animals hereafter imported, to be eligible 
to registr}^ in the Ayrshire Record, must previous!}' be 
recorded in the A3^rshire Herd Book of Scotland, and 
an application for registr}- must be accompanied b}^ a 
certificate of registr\^ duh^ signed by the Secretar}' in 

Entries of calves imported in dam must be accom- 
panied b}^ the certificate of registry of sire and dam in 
the Scotch Herd Book, also certificate of bull service, 
signed b}^ owner of bull. 

3. No animal not already named and entered in 
some Herd Book at this date, shall be accepted for 
entry under a name that has already been offered for 
entry ; also, the affix, ist, 2d, and 3d, shall apply only 
to calves of the cow bearing the name used ; not to her 
grandchildren, nor an}^ other animal. 

4. The breeder of an animal shall be considered 
the one owning the dam at the time of her service b}^ 
the bull. 

5. No Pedigree will be received for entr}- from 
anyone except the breeder of the animal offered, unless 
it is accompanied b}" a certificate of the breeder or his 
legal representative, indorsing the Pedigree. 

Entries of calves, sired by bulls not owned by the 
breeder of the calf, shall be accompanied by^ a certificate 
of bull service signed by owner of bull. 

6. All animals sold, in order that their progeny 
may be registered, must have their successive transfers 
duly recorded. Records of transfers will be made onh'- 
on the certificate of former owmer, or his legal represen- 


7- A transfer-book shall be kept b}^ the Editor, in 
which all changes of ownership shall be recorded. 

8. The Editor shall keep a record of the deaths of 
all animals which ma}-^ be sent to him. (And breeders 
are requested to forward the same, stating cause, etc.) 

g. The fees for recording are one dollar for each 
animal recorded by and in the name of a member of the 
Association, being either bred or owned b3^ him, and 
two dollars for animals over two 3^ears old at the time 
of entry. 

Double the above rates are charged to those not 

A fee of twenty-five cents will be charged for 
recording ancestors necessary to complete a pedigree to 
importation or to cattle already in the Ayrshire Record. 

Transfer fee twenty-five cents. iVll the above fees 
should accompany the entry or transfer papers to insure 
attention . 

10. An individual membership shall be continued 

after the death of a member in the settlement of his 

estate until the same shall be settled and then the 

membership shall cease. In case of corporations, the 

corporation may continue as a member so long as the}^ 

are interested in the Association, and shall be repre- 
sented b}^ such person as may be designated by the 
President and Secretar}- of the Corporation. 

11. These Regulations may be altered, amended 
or added to, with the consent of two-thirds of the officers 
of the Association and Executive Committee. 


Each Vol., I to XII inclusive, postage prepaid, ma}^ be 
obtained of the Treasurer, N. S. Winsor, 
Greenville, R. I., price, $2.25 

Milk record blanks, per 100, 1.50 

Blanks for registering and transfer blanks, free, 
on application to Secretary. 


An Act to Incorporate the Ayrshire Breeders' Association. 

It is hcr^eby eiiaded by the General Assembly of the State 
of Vermont ; 

Sec. I. J. D. W. French, James F. Converse, 
Alonzo Libby, F. H. Mason, Obadiah Brown, Henry K. 
Smith, C. M. Winslow, S. M. Wells, H. R. C. Watson, 
James Scott, Gcorge A. Fletcher, Charles H. Ha3'es, 
John Stewart, their associates and successors, are con- 
stituted a body corporate b}^ the name of the "A^^rshire 
Breeders' Association," and by that name may sue and 
be sued ; may acquire by gift or purchase, hold and 
convey real and personal estate, necessarj^ for the 
purpose of this corporation, not to exceed twent3^-five 
thousand dollars ; ma}^ have a common seal and alter 
the same at pleasure. 

Sec. 2. The object of this corporation shall be to 
publish a herd book, and for such other purposes as 
may be conducive to the interest of breeders of 
Ayrshire cattle. 

Sec. 3. This corporation may elect officers and 
make such by-laws, rules and regulations for the 
management of its business as ma}^ be necessar}^, not 
inconsistent with the laws of this State. 

Sec. 4. This corporation may hold its meetings at 
such time and place as the corporation ma}^ appoint. 

Sec. 5. This act shall take effect from its passage. 


Speaker of the Ho2ise of Representatives. 


President of the Senate. 
Approved November 23, 1886. 


(A true copy.) 
Attest : E. W. J. Hawkins, 

E7igrossing Clerk. 


(Adopted February 21, 1889.) 

The points desirable in the female are generally so 
in the male, but must, of course, be attended with that 
masculine character which is inseparable from a strong 
and vigorous constitution. Even a certain degree of 
coarseness is admissible ; but then it must be so exclu- 
sively of masculine description as never to be discovered 
in a female of his get. 

1. The head of the bull may be shorter than 

that of the cow, but the frontal bone should 
be broad, the muzzle good size, throat nearly 
free from hanging folds, eyes full. The 
horns should have an upward turn, with 
sufficient size at the base to- indicate 
strength of constitution 10 

2. Neck of medium length, somewhat arched, 

and large in the muscles w^hich indicate 
power and strength 10 

3. Forequarters — shoulders close to the body, 

without any hollow^ space behind ; chest 
broad, brisket deep and well developed, but 
not too large 7 

4. Back short and straight ; spine sufficiently 

defined, but not in the same degree as in 
the cow ; ribs well sprung, and bod}^ deep in 
the flanks 10 

5. Hindquarters — long, broad and straight ; hip 
■ bones wnde apart ; pelvis long, broad and 

straight : tail set on a level with the back ; 
thighs deep and broad 10 

6. Scrotum large, with well developed teats in 

front 7 


7- Legs, short in proportion to size, joints firm. 
Hind legs well apart, and not to cross in 
walking. 5 

8. Skin yellow, soft, elastic, and of medium 

thickness lo 

9. Color, red of any shade, brown or wdiite, or a 

mixture of these — each color being distinctly . 
defined 3 

10. Average live weight at maturit5^ about 1,500 

pounds.. 10 

11. General appearance, including style and 

movement — • 15 

12. Escutcheon, large and fine development 3 

Perfection 100 


(Adopted February 21, 1889.) 

The following scale of points for the Ayrshire cow 
was adopted — being similar to the scale adopted in 
Scotland in 1884, and changed in a few points to render 
them applicable to this countr}^ 

1. Head, short ; forehead, wide ; nose,, fine 

between the muzzle and eyes ; muzzle, large ; 
eyes, full and lively ; horns, wide set on, 
inclining upwards 10 

2. Neck, moderatelj" long, and straight from the 

head to the top of the shoulder, free from 
loose skin on the under side, fine at its 
junction with the head, and enlarging sym- 
metrically towards the shoulders 5 


3- Forequarters — shoulders, sloping; withers, 
fine ; chest, sufficiently broad and deep to 
insure constitution ; brisket and whole 
forequarters light, the cow graduall3^ increas- 
ing in depth and width backwards-. -•-. 5 

4. Back, short and straight ; spine, well defined, 

especially at the shoulders ; short ribs, 
arched ; the body deep at the flanks 10 

5. Hindquarters, long , broad and straight, 

hookbones wide apart, and not overlaid 
with fat ; thighs, deep and broad ; tail long, 
slender and set on a level with the back...... 8 

6. Udder, capacious and not fleshy, hind part 

broad and firmly attached to the body, the 
sole nearl}^ level and extending well forward; 
milk veins about udder and abdomen well 
developed ; the teats from 2 1-2 to 3 inches 
in length, equal in thickness— the thickness 
being in proportion to the length — hanging 
perpendicularly, their distance apart at the 
sides should be equal to one-third of the 
length of the vessel, and across to one-half 
the breadth 30 

7. Legs, short in proportion to size, the bones 

fine, the joints firm 3 

8. Skin, 3^ellow, soft and elastic, and covered 

with soft, close, woolly hair 5 

9. Color, red of any shade, brown or white, or 


mixture of these — each color beinof dis- 


tinctly defined 3 

10. Average live weight, in full milk, about 1000 

pounds 8 

11. General appearance, including style and 

movement 10 

12. Escutcheon, large and fine development 3 

Perfection 100 




L. S. DREW, 

South Burlington, Vt. 

Vice=Presidents 3 


Providence, R. I. Brandon, Vt. 


Monaca, Pa. Elburn, 111. 

Secretary and Editor. 


Brandon, Vt. 



Greenville, R. I. 

Executive Committee, 


Wethersfield, Conn. Elizabeth, N. J. 


Dover, N.J. Portsmouth, N. H. 


No. Andover, Mass. Austin, Minn. 

Editing Committee, 


Brandon, Vt. No. Andover, Mass. 



Adams, A A Garnet, Kansas. 

Allan, Andrew. Montreal, P. Q. 

Angell, Edwin G Providence, R. I. 

Arnold, George W Warren, R. I. 

Ayer, H S Columbus, Pa. 

Babcock, F M . Gouverneur, N. Y. 

Bacon, P K Campello, Mass. 

Ball, A P Derby Line, Vt. 

Barney, C S Milford, N. Y. 

Barnes, N Middle Hope, N. Y. 

Beach, Frederick H Dover, N. J. 

Beatty, J P Pataskala, Ohio. 

Bell, George H Rome, N. Y. 

Bement, George East Oakland, Cal. 

Betts, Henry Pittsfield, Ohio. 

Birnie, Charles A Long Meadow, Mass. 

Blodgett, H W Waukegan, 111. 

Blodgett, J W East Saugus, Mass. 

Boise, Enos W Blandford, Mass. 

Bowkcr, George H Barre Plains, Mass. 

Bowen, Edward S Providence, R. I. 

Boyer, R A Catasauqua, Pa. 

Bo3mton, C H Lisbon, N. H. 

Bradford, J H, Supt Monson, Mass. 

Bradley, G C Watertown, N. Y. 

Brainerd, L • St. Albans, Vt. 

Brayton, C N South Wales, N. Y. 

Brodie, Hugh Rural Hill, N. Y. 

Brown, Obadiah Providence, R. I. 

Brush & Rowley Northport, N. Y. 

Bryant, George E Baldwinsville, Mass. 

Burke, Joseph F Morristown, N. J. 

Burnett, John W. Salem, N. Y. 

Butterfield, Jerome F Montrose, Pa. 


Buttrick, C A Liberty Falls, N. Y. 

Byrne, Christopher Friendsville, Pa. 

Calumet Woolen Co Uxbridge, Mass. 

Campbell, John S New York Mills, N. Y. 

Carr, Lewis Providence, R.I. 

Carrons, Robert M Washington, Pa. 

Cass, George L McGraw^ville, N. Y. 

Casterline, J Andrew Dover, N.J. 

Choate, Charles F Southboro, Mass. 

Clark, C W^ Guymard, N. Y. 

Clark, Franklin P Sudbury, Mass. 

Clark, N E • Potsdam, N. Y. 

Clarkson, T S, Jr Potsdam, N. Y. 

Cloud, James and Son Kennet Square, Pa. 

Cochran, M H. Compton, P. Q. 

Cochran, T Allman Baltimore, Md. 

Coldren, J N lou^a City, Iowa. 

Connecticut Insane AvSylum.. Middletown, Conn. 

Converse, J F Woodville, N. Y. 

Cook, Howard • Beloit, Ohio. 

Cookingham, H W^ Cherry Creek, N. Y. 

Cooper, Albert • Java Village, N. Y. 

Cornell, A M Altus, Pa. 

Cornell, F P Sylvania, Pa. 

Coutts, Peter Mayfield, Cal. 

Crane, Fred Roselle, N.J. 

Crane, John Union, N. J. 

Crane, J H & Sons Toledo, Ohio. 

Crayton, B F & Son Anderson, S. C. 

Crissey, Warren Great Barrington, Mass. 

Crozier, William Northport, N. Y. 

Curtis, L W^ Globe Village, Mass. 

Davidson, George Fairfax, Que. 

Davis, L D Newport, R. I. 

Dearborne, A J West Falmouth, Me. 


Delap, S N lola, Kan. 

Doane, Franklin Middletown, N. Y. 

Doe, Charles C South Newbur^^, Vt. 

Dome, Elmer J Johnstown, N. Y. 

Drew, L S South Burlington, Vt. 

Drummond, James Cote Visitation, Montreal 

Dunham, J L Sharon, Conn. 

Edes, Samuel Newport, N. H. 

Ennis, Alfred A Danielson, Conn. 

Fairweather, William. Meadville, Pa. 

Farley, FC Milburn, N. J. 

Farrell, W E Corey, Pa. 

Fletcher, George A. Milton, Mass. 

Fletcher, Etna J Greenfield, N. H. 

Foote, TE Eee, Mass. 

*Foss, J M St. Albans, Vt. 

French, J D W North Andover, Mass. 

Fuller, C C Nelson, Ohio. 

Garvin, W R , Dover, N. H. 

Gibb, John E Quebec, P. Q. 

Gold, T S West Cornwall, Conn. 

Greene, B D Stamford, Conn. 

Griffin, J H Moira, N. Y. 

Hall, Eott .. Gouverneur, N. Y. 

Ham, Eugene Verbank, N. Y. 

Hamilton Woolen Co Southbridge, Mass. 

Harrington, A D Oxford, N. Y. 

Harrington, H A W^orcester, Mass. 

Harrison, Charles K Pikesville, Md. 

Harwood, J A Eittleton, Mass. 

Haskins, J P & Son Providence, R. I. 

Hawes, Addison S Providence, R.I. 

Hawkes, EB Wells Bridge, N. Y. 

Hayes, Charles H Portsmouth,^ N. H. 

* Dead. 


Ha^^es, Charles S Portsmouth, N. H. 

Hazard, Isaac Providence, R. I. 

Holt, Andy Lyndeboro, N. H. 

Hazen, Chester Brandon, Wis. 

Healy, C N Exter, N. H. 

Heath, GP Northboro, Mass. 

Higgins, Asa Petaluma, Cal. 

Hill, James J St. Paul, Minn. 

Hinson, W G Charleston, S. C. 

Hopkins, William H Providence, R. I. 

Hopkins, Willis W Aldenville, Pa. 

Hubbard, George D Camden, N. Y. 

Hunt, AW Brunswick, Me. 

Hyde, JB i2oBroadwa3^ NewYork. 

Irving, Thomas Petite Cote, Que. 

Jackson, Ward R Boonville, N. Y. 

Jay, Wm Katonah, N. Y. 

Jenkins, JW Vernon, N. Y. 

Johnson, Joseph Hartland, Wis. 

Jones, D & G Galesburgh, 111. 

Jones, Ira W Alfred, N. Y. 

Jones, NP Billerica, Mass. 

Joslin, H S Mohegan, R. I. 

Kemp, Edward NewYork. 

Kissel, Gustave Morristown, N.J. 

Knowlton, George W. West Upton, Mass. 

Krebs, J DeWitt 200 W 118 — NewYork. 

Earned, J H Putnam, Conn. 

Eawrence, James.... Groton, Mass. 

Eeach, Philo Bridgewater, Mass. 

Eibby, Alonzo Westbrook, Me. 

Eindsay, William Elizabeth, N. J. 

Eogan, A Sydney Philadelphia, Pa. 

Eorillard, P Jobstown, N. J. 

Magie, J O Elizabeth, N.J. 


Magone, Daniel Ogdensburgh, N. Y. 

Mason, F H Leon, Ohio. 

Massey, D A Asylum Station, Mass. 

McCrea, Robert Champlain, N. Y. 

McFadden, George H Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Merriam, Herbert Weston, Mass. 

Millard, L D Taunton, Mass. 

Miller, James Pen Yan, N. Y. 

Milliken, Charles R Portland, Me. 

Munce, R J Washington, Pa. 

Nichols, James H Carmel, N. Y. 

Norton, W H Allentown, N. Y. 

Oliver, James ... South Bend, Ind. 

Oneida Community (Limited) Kenway, N. Y. 

Ormiston Bros Cuba, N. Y. 

Peck, Cassius Burlington, Vt. 

Peck, C L Coudersport, Pa. 

Pierce, George H Concord, Mass. 

Perley, Charles West Boxford, Mass. 

Pierce, W R Middleborough, Mass. 

Pike, Geo K-- Gouverneur, N. Y. 

Piper, Anson C South Acton, Mass. 

Pope, Rev G Stanley Grand View, Texas. 

Proctor, Fletcher D Proctor, Vt. 

Ramsdell, H S Newburgh, N. Y. 

Reed, Hammon Lexington, Mass. 

Reeve, C McC Minneapolis, Minn. 

Rhodes, T F Camillus, N. Y, 

Rhome, B C Etna, Texas. 

Robinson, Isaac R Wakefield, R. I. 

Roode, Joseph Jewett City, Conn. 

Russell, Henry G Providence, R. I. 

Sadler, Edward W Mont Clair, N. J. 

Sage, Charles D No. Brookfield, Mass. 

Sanford, Charles Orwell, Vt. 

Scott, Jonn W Austin, Minn. 


Scliouten, EA Cortland, N. Y. 

Scribner, G S Castleton, Vt. 

Sears, B C Blooming Grove, N. Y. 

Sears, NE Elmwood, Conn. 

Seaver, Henr}^ E Canton, N. Y. 

Sellers, William Edc. e Moor, Del. 

Sherman, Everett B Burrillville, R. I. 

Sherman, Eeander..... Harrisville, R.I. 

Shinier, AS • Redington, Pa. 

Shinier, B Euther Bethlehem, Pa. 

Smith, Daniel A Tarkiln, R. I. 

Smith, E A Brandon, Vt. 

Smith, J B Walden, N. Y. 

Smith, Oliver • Chateaugay, N. Y. 

Smith, Peter D Andover, Mass. 

Spaulding, EC Poultnej^ Vt. 

Spencer, AB Rockport, Ohio. 

Stevens, Wm Stanford St. Albans, Vt. 

Stewart, John Elburn, 111. 

Stewart, John Eorne Island of Coll, Scotland. 

Stickne^^ William H Brownfield, Me. 

Stone, Bela J W^estborough, Mass. 

Stowell, E D Black Creek, N. Y. 

Stowits, H Abilene, Kan. 

Surget, James Natchez, Miss. 

Taber, George East Aurora, N. Y. 

Taylor, Alfred J Worthington, Mass. 

Taylor, John E Oswego, N. Y. 

Thorp, John C »•-•• Holyoke. Mass. 

Thurber, CS ^ New York. 

Tongue, Thomas H...., Hillsborough, Oregon. 

Topping, RR Amsterdam, N. Y. 

Tschudy, Fred Monroe, Wis. 

Tubbs, Ambie S Mexico, N. Y. 

Tucker, W G Elm Valley, N. Y. 


Turnbull, Thomas Jr Monaca, Pa. 

Turner, J C I^ongview, Texas, 

Tuttle, M A Hornellsville, N. Y. 

Ilnderhill, CS Glenham, N. Y. 

Valentine, John R Br3'n Mawr, Pa. 

Vaughn, William P Providence, R. I. 

Venable, A R Jr Farmville, Va. 

Verplank, Samuel Fishkill-on-Hudson,N.Y. 

Viner, William Arden, N. Y. 

Walker, William I Great Barrington, Mass. 

Watson, H R C Brandon, Vt. 

Weed, John W Noroton, Conn. 

Wells, Dudley Wethersfield, Conn. 

Wells, S M - Wethersfield, Conn. 

Whitney, C P Orleans, N. Y. 

Whittingham, WR Milburn, N. J. 

Wilson, A J..... Grafton, Ohio. 

Winslow, C M Brandon, Vt. 

Winsor, Nicholas S Greenville, R. I. 

Winter, NH Cortland, N. Y. 

Wolcott, C W Readville, Mass. 

Wood, Lucius H Cranston, R. I. 

Yeaton, George H Dover, N. H. 

Young, Oilman P Grafton, Mass. 

Young, James Iv Sterling, Conn.